Wyniki wyszukiwania

Filtruj wyniki

  • Czasopisma
  • Autorzy
  • Słowa kluczowe
  • Data
  • Typ

Wyniki wyszukiwania

Wyników: 16
Wyników na stronie: 25 50 75
Sortuj wg:

Abstrakt

The article provides a general overview of environmental protection and conservation practice in the Antarctic Treaty area, with special reference to the stipulations of the 1991 Protocol on Environmental Protection and its Annexes.
Przejdź do artykułu

Abstrakt

The diversity of cyanobacterial assemblages from various microhabitats in the Arctic area of Petuniabukta, Billefjorden, central Svalbard, was described. The present article contains the introductory common review of the cyanobacterial diversity and ecological data concerning main habitats, while the characteristics of individual taxonomic groups will be presented in following specific studies. Eight distinct main habitats were recognized, which differed in their species composition and especially the dominant species. More than 80 morphospecies were registered during our investigation, but only about 1/3 of them could be assigned to known and described taxa. The others require additional analyses based on modern taxonomic methods (the polyphasic approach ). The composition of cyanobacterial micro flora was comparable with assemblages in coastal Antarctica. The diversity of unicellular and colonial morphotypes (36 taxa) was higher tha n other groups. The number of filamentous species without heterocytes and akinetes, with 30 species, and heterocytous types, with only 20 species, were similar in both of these ecosystems. These numbers will be surely changed in the future, but the overall proportion of different groups will likely stay the same. In contrast to the limited species diversity, simple filamentous aheterocytous species were dominant and formed massive populations. Fewheterocy tous taxa, mostly grouped within the genus Nostoc ( N. commune –complex), were dominant in tundra soils.
Przejdź do artykułu

Abstrakt

An investigation of cyanobacterial microflora in the northern, deglaciated part of James Ross Island in the NW part of the Weddell Sea, Antarctica , was conducted during the Antarctic summer season 2005-2006. Five main types of habitats with dominant cyanobacterial assemblages were analyzed (soils, seepages, streams, wetted rocky walls and lakes), and main ecological variables were measured (pH, temperature, intensity of global radiation, conductivity and nutrients), as a background for further ecological and ecophysiological studies. The definable traditional cyanobacterial morphospecies were identified.
Przejdź do artykułu

Abstrakt

W niniejszym artykule podjęto zagadnienie ekologicznych mostów pieszych kreujących przyjazne tereny (enklawy) zieleni w miejskich tkankach urbanistycznych. Omówione przypadki obejmują realizacje takich projektów jak: High Line w Nowym Jorku i Garden Bridge w Londynie. Myślą przewodnią artykułu jest porównanie zielonych mostów wkomponowanych w miejską tkankę urbanistyczną z „żywymi mostami”. Autorka artykułu podkreśla ograniczenia potencjalnej możliwości uprawiania „żywych mostów” w miejskiej tkance, wynikające z klimatu, czasu ich powstania i ograniczeń przestrzeni miejskiej. Zauważa także silne tendencje do kreowania stref zieleni w „betonowej” tkance urbanistycznej, ale także użycia sztucznych materiałów w tkance „żywych mostów”.
Przejdź do artykułu

Abstrakt

This work aims to comprehensively describe the current state of the concept of green infrastructure. It is thus meant to fill in a gap in Polish literature as no comprehensive works concerning green infrastructure have been published in our country even though we have witnessed several such works in other places in the world. The book is mostly addressed to urban planners, spatial planners and landscape architects and it focuses on issues related to developing strategies or green nalyzingture network designs. It is difficult to establish when (and by whom) the term “green infrastructure” was actually coined. The performed literature search indicates that various authors attribute its beginnings to different publications. There is, however, much more consensus regarding the origins of the idea of green infrastructure. Among the concepts regarded as the bases for the notion of green infrastructure we can discern two principal ones: the concept of ecological networks and the concept of greenways (in the US). In Poland, such concepts included the Ecological System of Protected Areas (in Polish: Ekologiczny System Obszarów Chronionych) and System of Open Spaces (in Polish: System terenów otwartych). There is some disagreement regarding the origins of green infrastructure in cities. Analysis of defi nitions of green infrastructure seen in both scientific publications as well as guides and formal documents leads to a single conclusion – we should accept the diversity of interpretations and approaches. A similar diversity in approaches can also be found when looking at the presented typologies. By analyzing the rationale behind the typologies, we can discern three major criteria used by the authors: land cover, land use and ecological value, which is usually associated with formal protection of specifi c areas. The principles of green infrastructure development can be divided into planning-related (multi-functionality, connectivity, multi-scale approach, multi-object approach, cost-effective approach) and governance-related (strategic approach, integration, social inclusion, transdisciplinarity, stakeholder inclusion). Green infrastructure provides people with a multitude of more or less measurable benefits. For the last several years they have been identified and quantified using a concept of ecosystem services. These services are always provided in certain confi gurations, which means that it is only possible to obtain the benefits if the services generating those benefi ts are not contradictory to each other. For several years now, the European Commission has been conducting research on the scope, possibilities and methods of implementing the concept of green infrastructure in the member states. However, the EU’s offi cial position on this subject was declared only in 2013 via Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions – Green Infrastructure (GI) — Enhancing Europe’s Natural Capital. In both EU member states and the United States, non-governmental organizations are the main advocates of the concept of green infrastructure. They have been recently joined by governmental and self-government agencies. The case studies of already developed strategies and designs of the concept of green infrastructure presented in this book illustrate a great diversity of approaches. It is particularly noticeable in the way of identifying specific components and principles of planning and implementation of green infrastructure networks. These differences come mainly from the varying scale of development, adopted interpretations of the notion of green infrastructure as well as specifi c natural, social and sometimes economic conditions in particular areas. Based on the knowledge and experience gathered from the analysis of those cases, we can point out the following problems that Polish planners need to face in order to develop and implement green infrastructure for Polish rural communes, cities and regions: • good selection of the formula and defi nition of green infrastructure that is appropriate for the scale, specifi c conditions of the area, needs of the inhabitants and ambitions of the authorities; • good identification of areas with potential for green infrastructure development that is appropriate for the scale and problems of a specific area (city, village, region) • identification of the scope and degree of confl ict between ecosystem services provided by individual components of green infrastructure; • development of a spatial concept that includes the problem of the inherent conflict between the expected benefits (especially regulation and maintenance versus cultural) coming from individual components of green infrastructure; • proposal of appropriate instruments for implementing the concept and resolving the problem of its coexistence with other concepts of shaping the ecological structure of cities, rural communes and regions in Poland. Summing up, the concept of green infrastructure can be viewed as the ultimate synthesis of all former ideas dealing with the development of ecological structure of cities, open landscapes and regions. In most European countries, apart from Great Britain, the concept of green infrastructure is currently in its implementation phase. Therefore, its true – not paper – history is about to begin and it will probably look diff erent in every country. It will be aff ected by various traditions of development planning, the already developed concepts, degree of involvement of the authorities and – probably above all – the will of those that expect quantifiable benefits from green infrastructure.
Przejdź do artykułu

Abstrakt

Filamentous types from the order Oscillatoriales, particularly the species Phormidium autumnale , have widely diverse morphotypes, which dominate in Arctic aquatic microbial mats and wet soils. We cultivated 25 strains of Ph . autumnale from Svalbard and compared them with available strains from surrounding regions. The comparison of strains, based on 16S rDNA and 16S−23S rDNA intergenic spacer sequences, revealed the similarity of strains from Ellesmere Island, the Canadian Arctic and Abisko, Sweden with strains from Svalbard. The rate of colonization of Ph. atumnale from aquatic habitats is relatively high and we suggest geese as a main transmission vector from surrounding lands. Strains of Ph. autumnale were positioned in the phylogenetic tree according to their occurrence in similar habitats. An apparent clustering factor is the duration of availability of water in lakes and long−lasting streams in contrast to rapid and repeated desiccation in soil and on wetted rock in the spray zone of waterfalls. Strains that grow in very cold waters just above the melting point of snow or ice form a distinct genetic group. The strains investigated in this study show morphological similarity in the shape of the trichomes of the studied specimens. Overall, the cell diameter, except for terminal cells, of our strains varied between 3 and 10 μm. Comparison of 16S rDNA sequences of the genus Ph. autumnale with the previously published definition of the species Microcoleus vaginatus revealed the identity of these two species.
Przejdź do artykułu

Abstrakt

The article discusses the relationship between energy quality technologies cutting and their environmental friendliness. Based on the energy analysis shows that energy consumption in the individual technological process is connected with the cutting power and power loss, which form the environmental indicators of the cutting process and reduce its energy efficiency. In addition, it is shown that at implementation of technological processes on the equipment, electrical systems are AC systems the implementation of the cutting process occurs when excessive consumption of currents. The article presents the results of studies on the energy efficiency of cutting processes, definition of the complex influence of cutting processes on the environment and humans, the formation of ways of improving environmental and energy performance quality of these processes.
Przejdź do artykułu

Abstrakt

Water bears (Tardigrada) are known as one of the most extremophile animals in the world. They inhabit environments from the deepest parts of the oceans up to the highest mountains. One of the most extreme and still poorly studied habitats which tardigrades inhabit are cryoconite holes. We analysed the relation between area, depth, elevation and tardigrades densities in cryoconite holes on four glaciers on Spitsbergen. The mean (±SD) of cryoconite area was 1287.21±2400.8 cm2, while the depth was on average 10.8±11.2 cm, the elevation 172.6±109.66 m a.s.l., and tardigrade density 24.9±33.0 individuals per gram of wet material (n = 38). The densities of tardigrades on Hans Glacier reached values of up to 168 ind. cm3, 104 ind. g-1 wet weight, and 275 ind. g-1 dry weight. The densities of tardigrades of the three glaciers in Billefjorden were up to 82 ind. cm2, 326 ind. g-1 wet weight and 624 ind. g-1 dry weight. Surprisingly, although the model included area, depth and elevation as independent variables, it cannot explain Tardigrada density in cryoconite holes. We propose that due to the rapid melting of the glacier surface in the Arctic, the constant flushing of cryoconite sediments, and inter-hole water-sediment mixing, the functioning of these ecosystems is disrupted. We conclude that cryoconite holes are dynamic ecosystems for microinvertebrates in the Arctic.
Przejdź do artykułu

Abstrakt

Inspirując się socjologią miasta szkoły chicagowskiej i antropologią Mary Douglas autorzy artykułu ukazują szczególny status kulturowy nowych miejskich peryferii w zestawieniu ze wsią oraz starymi peryferiami i centrami miejskimi. Krytycznie odnoszą się do tezy, że nowe peryferie miast są „pustyniami kulturalnymi” lub „sypialniami”, a formę względnie trwałego zbiorowego zorganizowania wzorów aktywności uznają za specyficzny dla nowych osiedli rodzaj kultury. Dowodzą, że jeśli w klasyfikacji Douglas wieś cechuje niska społeczna energia i silna kontrola społeczna, a centrum wielkiego miasta wysoka energia i niska kontrola, to nowe miejskie peryferie charakteryzują się zarówno niską energią, jak i niską kontrolą społeczną. Dokładniejsza charakterystyka nowych peryferii została przedstawiona w artykule na podstawie materiałów zebranych w ramach kilku projektów jakościowych badań socjologicznych. W świetle materiałów empirycznych można zobaczyć, że na nowych miejskich peryferiach bezpośrednie formy społecznej kontroli zostały zastąpione przez społeczny zakaz ingerencji i rozwinięcie się form samokontroli mieszkańców nad sprywatyzowanymi mikroprzestrzeniami zamieszkiwania i transportu oraz nad własnym ciałem. Zauważono, że intensywny rozwój zindywidualizowanych praktyk rekreacyjnych outdoor prowadzi do stopniowego kształtowania się typu cielesnego mieszkańca nowych peryferii.
Przejdź do artykułu

Abstrakt

Diatom assemblages from small pools and creeks on the Ecology Glacier forefield have been investigated. It is the first study in the Admiralty Bay region after the thorough taxonomic revision of the non-marine Antarctic diatom flora. A total of 122 diatom taxa, belonging to 35 genera were identified. More than 55% of all observed species have a restricted Antarctic distribution. Another 15% have a marine origin. Nitzschia gracilis Hantzsch, N. homburgiensis Lange-Bertalot and Planothidium rostrolanceolatum Van de Vijver et al. dominated the flora. Based on a DCA analysis, samples were subdivided in three groups reflecting ecological differences. Several samples (group 1) showed a mixed freshwater/marine diatom composition and are typical for coastal pools. Two other groups were separated based on the amount of limnoterrestrial taxa indicating the temporary character of some of the pools.
Przejdź do artykułu

Abstrakt

Morphological description of seeds is a required step for analysis of biodiversity in natural populations and may give clues to adaptive strategies in species evolution. A cardioid is the curve described by a point of one circumference rolling around another circumference of equal radius. Models based on adjustment of seed shape with cardioid curves have been described for Arabidopsis thaliana and the model legumes Lotus japonicus and Medicago truncatula. In this work the model is applied to analyze seed morphology in populations of two subspecies of Capparis spinosa growing in Tunisia. Adjustment of seed images to cardioid curves, followed by statistical analysis of similarity in the complete images as well as in each of four quadrants, allows an accurate description of seed shape. The results show differences in morphology between subspecies. Seeds of subsp. rupestris present higher diversity of shape than seeds of subsp. spinosa. This may indicate primitiveness of C. subsp. rupestris seeds, associated with nonspecialization. The results are discussed in relation to the ecological strategies of both subspecies in their evolution.
Przejdź do artykułu

Abstrakt

Fascinated with Mexico continually since childhood, J.M.G. Le Clézio publishes the, inspired by the countr y, novel Ourania in 2006. The author’s concern for the survival of the Mexican world has not escaped his critics. It is worth noting, however, that the writer’s emphasis on the role of the oral tradition in the Amerindian culture and their ecological attitudes are evident. The culture of the spoken language (along with the belief in the magic of words) is contrasted with the western culture of the written language (stressing the emptiness of words). The analysis of this issue and the study of the formal procedures by which Le Clézio moves from the spoken to the written language may give us a sense of the suggestive voice of the Mexican peoples along with their ecological attitudes. It seems that J.M.G. Le Clézio, who protects tribal societies who know how to use the world in a moderate way, promotes, among others, their respect for the natural environment.
Przejdź do artykułu

Abstrakt

Największym dobrem człowieka jest jego środowisko. Każdy chce oddychać powietrzem o jak najlepszych walorach niezależnie czy w centrum dużej aglomeracji, czy poza nią. Zanieczyszczone bardzo drobnymi pyłami powietrze niesie ze sobą niekorzystne skutki zdrowotne dla człowieka i jego otoczenia. Istotna część zanieczyszczeń pyłowych powietrza pochodzi z tzw. niskiej emisji powodowanej stosowaniem jako źródeł ciepła nienormowanych pieców i kominków oraz przestarzałych kotłów i instalacji cieplnych (lokalnych kotłowni). PGG SA od początku swojego istnienia aktywnie uczestniczy i wspiera wszelkie działania zmierzające do poprawy stanu powietrza, dbając o jakość produkowanego i dostarczanego węgla opałowego dla sektora komunalno- bytowego. Spółka podjęła szeroko zakrojone działania proekologiczne w kierunku tworzenia nowej, proekologicznej strategii i oferty produktowej. Systematycznie rozwijana jest produkcja ekologicznych sortymentów węgla oraz wprowadzane są do sprzedaży nowe paliwa węglowe. Produkcja węgla handlowego dla obiorców rynku komunalno-bytowego jest jednym z głównych priorytetów Spółki. W tym zakresie dokonano wielu zmian organizacyjnych (m.in. powołano do życia Zakład Produkcji Ekopaliw) i technologicznych mających na celu zapewnienie produkcji węgla opałowego o najwyższej jakości.
Przejdź do artykułu

Abstrakt

Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) infesting many plants but Mentha viridis L., and Mentha piperita L., were low in number of infestation. Therefore the objective of this study was to identify the resistance of M. viridis and M. piperita plants against T. urticae by studying the external shape and internal contents of those plants. For morphological studies, dried leaves were covered with gold utilizing an Edwards Scan coat six sputter-coater. For histological studies, arrangements of Soft Tissue technique were used. For phytochemical studies, the plants were cut, dried and then high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used. While feeding the mites were collected from the area between oily glands, trichomes and respiratory stomata in both mint species. The most important leaf structures in aromatic plants are the oily glands found on the external part of the leaves (both upper and lower epidermis). The number of oil glands in M. viridis leaves was greater than in M. piperita; the trichomes on the epidermis of M. viridis were greater in number than in M. piperita; the spongy mesophyll in M. viridis was much thicker than in M. piperita. The essential oils in the leaves of both mint species contained 71 compounds representing 99.61% of the total oil constituents identified from M. viridis before infestation, and 90.95% after infestation, and about 99.65% from M. piperita before infestation, and 99.98% after infestation.
Przejdź do artykułu

Abstrakt

In a study on the click beetles (Coleoptera: Elateridae) of selected plant communities of the Lasy Janowskie Reserve, 21 species of these beetles were recorded – 10 each in riparian forests and a sub-Atlantic mesic coniferous forest, 11 in a continental mixed coniferous forest, and 6 in wet grassland communities. The numbers of species in the communities was similar to numbers recorded in other, comparable areas of Poland, with the exception of the wet grasslands. Forest species that can also occur outside of forests – Athous subfuscus and Dalopius marginatus – were dominant. The biodiversity of the click beetle fauna in the communities was at an average level. An ecological and zoogeographical analysis was carried out as well.
Przejdź do artykułu

Abstrakt

One of the factors that contribute to the development of foundry moulding technology is environmental protection. The related challenges are effectively satisfied by a new inorganic binder that has been designed for castings made of non-ferrous metal alloys. This article presents in a concise way the test results, showing the ecological character of the new binder at the stage of making moulds, pouring them with metal and cooling of castings, indicating the possibilities for an economic re-use of waste materials formed during practical application of this technology. The results were compared with the results obtained on the sands with organic binders. Studies were carried out under the project POIG.01.01.02-00-015/09 "Advanced materials and technologies."
Przejdź do artykułu

Ta strona wykorzystuje pliki 'cookies'. Więcej informacji