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Abstract

The work presents the results of studies on dependence of effectiveness of chosen robust estimation methods from the internal reliability level of a geodetic network. The studies use computer-simulated observation systems, so it was possible to analyse many variants differing from each other in a planned way. Four methods of robust estimation have been chosen for the studies, differing substantially in the approach to weight modifications. For comparative reasons, the effectiveness studies have also been conducted for the very popular method in surveying practice, of gross error detection basing on LS estimation results, the so called iterative data snooping. The studies show that there is a relation between the level of network internal reliability and the effectiveness of robust estimation methods. In most cases, in which the observation contaminated by a gross error was characterized by a low index of internal reliability, the robust estimation led to results being essentially far from expectations.
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Abstract

B a c k g r o u n d: The aim of the study was to evaluate the usefulness of the modified Peyton’s four-step approach in the teaching of cardiac auscultation and to determine students’ perception of Peyton’s four-step approach. Me t h o d s: The opinion of the participants on the usefulness of the modifi ed four-step approach was attained through the use of anonymous questionnaires, voluntarily completed by students, and on the basis of semi-structured interviews conducted with a subset of students. 187 second-year students of our 6-year long curriculum were enrolled. They attended an obligatory Laboratory Training of Clinical Skills course. The average group size was 16 students. R e s u l t s: The survey findings identified that 88.1% of participants found it helpful in developing their understanding of cardiac auscultation. 89.8% of all participants claimed that the new modified four-step approach facilitated memorization. The modified Peyton’s four-step method allows for better organization of classes in the opinion of 87.6% students. The advantages of the method were noticed by the majority of students. C on c l u s i o n s: The modified Peyton’s four-step approach in the teaching of cardiac auscultation under laboratory conditions was perceived by students to be a comprehensible method that facilitates understanding and memorization. Th is approach allows for improved organization of classes. From the student’s perspective this method allows one to master the technique of cardiac auscultation in the classroom, through the increased demand of the participants’ attention, activity and involvement.
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