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Number of results: 40
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Abstract

The bonding state of the asphalt layers in a road pavement structure significantly affects its fatigue life. These bondings, therefore, require detailed tests and optimization. In this paper, the analyses of the correlation between the results of laboratory static tests and the results of fatigue tests of asphalt mixture interlayer bondings were performed. The existence of the relationships between selected parameters was confirmed. In the future, the results of these analyses may allow for assessment of interlayer bondings' fatigue life based on the results of quick and relatively easy static tests.
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Abstract

The strength of conveyor belts splices made in mines rarely reaches full belt strength. It consists of a number of factors. The primary is the method of their construction and proper selection of ingredients. The significant impact has also has splice quality covering both keeping proper geometry matched to the belt construction and belts working conditions and adherence to the best practices in the field of technologies of their construction.Difficult conditions in underground mines and pressure on reducing conveyor downtime (avoiding production losses) is reflected by a drop in static and dynamic splices strength. This is confirmed by numerous studies of belt splices strength and fatigue life conducted in the Laboratory of Belt Conveying (LTT) within the framework of research and expert opinions commissioned by belt manufacturers and their users. The consequence of too insufficiently low belt splices strength is their low durability, decreasing reliability and, consequently, higher mining transportation costs. Belt splices are in fact the weakest link in the serial structure which form closed loops of interconnected belt sections working in series of conveyors transporting excavated material in the mine. The article presents the results of simulation analyzes analyses investigating how the increase of belt splices durability may contribute to the reduction of transportation costs in the underground mines.
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Abstract

In this study, the mechanical tests were carried out on ductile iron of EN-GJS-600-3 grade and on grey cast iron of EN-GJL-250 grade. The fatigue life was evaluated in a modified low-cycle fatigue test (MLCF), which enables the determination of parameters resulting from the Manson-Coffin-Morrow relationship. The qualitative and quantitative metallographic studies conducted by light microscopy on selected samples of ductile iron with spheroidal graphite and grey cast iron with lamellar graphite (showing only small variations in mechanical properties,) confirmed also small variations in the geometrical parameters of graphite related with its content and morphological features.
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Abstract

The experimental material consisted of semi-finished products of high-grade, medium-carbon constructional steel with: manganese, chromium, nickel, molybdenum and boron. The experimental material consisted of steel products obtained in three metallurgical processes: electric and desulfurized (E), electric and desulfurized with argon-refined (EA) and oxygen converter with vacuum degassed of steel (KP). The production process involved two melting technologies: in a 140-ton basic arc furnace with desulphurisation and argon refining variants, and in a 100-ton oxygen converter. Billet samples were collected to analyze: relative volume of impurities, microstructure and fatigue tests. The samples were quenched and austenitized at a temperature of 880o C for 30 minutes. They were then cooled in water and tempered by holding the sections at a temperature of 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600o C for 120 minutes and air-cooled. Fatigue tests were performed with the use of a rotary bending machine at a frequency of 6000 cpm. The results were statistical processed and presented in graphic form. This paper discusses the results of microstructural analyses, the distribution of the relative volume of impurities in different size ranges, the fatigue strength characteristics of different production processes, the average number of sampledamaging cycles and the average values of the fatigue strength coefficient for various heat processing options.
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Abstract

The paper presents the results of comparative tests of the fatigue properties conducted on two non-ferrous alloys designated as Al 6082 and Al 7075 which, due to the satisfactory functional characteristics, are widely used as engineering materials. The fatigue tests were carried out using a proprietary, modified low cycle test (MLCF). Particular attention was paid to the fatigue strength exponent b and fatigue ductility exponent c. Based on the tests carried out, the results comprised within the range defined by the literature were obtained. These results prove a satisfactory sensitivity of the method applied, its efficiency, the possibility of conducting tests in a fully economical way and above all the reliability of the obtained results of the measurements. Thus, the thesis has been justified that the modified low cycle fatigue test (MLCF) can be recommended as a tool used in the development of alloy characteristics within the range of low-cycle variable loads
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Abstract

The article presents an analysis of the change in air voids in asphalt mixtures subjected to fatigue tests at three temperatures of 0°C, 10°C and 25°C. The X-ray computerized tomography imaging method, XCT, was used to identify the air voids in the samples. The research allowed to determine changes in the content of air voids in subsequent fatigue cycles in the sample area. The relationship between air voids volume and the stiffness modulus value was also determined during fatigue for three temperatures. The largest changes were found in samples with notches at 0°C. The analysis of the change in the content of air voids showed that the micro-cracking nucleation processes develop with the number of fatigue cycles. Using the numerical model finite element method we determined the distribution and change in fatigue damage in the extreme areas of the sample during various stages of fatigue. We found clear relationship between the damage and the increased content of air voids.
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Abstract

Thermo-chemical treatments are known to increase the fatigue life of industrial parts. Due to the imprecise consideration of residual stresses in predicting the durability of components subjected to cyclic loading and their effect on the fatigue life, the authors developed a numerical model combining the influence of residual stresses with stresses caused by bending. The authors performed the numerical simulation with the use of Finite Element Method to analyse material behaviour during cyclic loading. The residual stress state developed during nitriding was introduced onto cross-section of the numerical specimen. The goal of this work was better understanding of the real conditions of the nitride steel fatigue processes and improving the knowledge about numerical predicting of the fatigue life for parts with residual stresses. The results of simulation were compared with plane bending fatigue tests. The presented method indicates the possibility of increasing the accuracy of the fatigue analysis of elements after surface treatment, increasing its certainty and the ability to perform better optimization of service life.
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Abstract

In the paper, on the basis of the performed tests, low-cycle fatigue characteristics (LCF) of selected light metal alloys used among others in the automotive and aviation industries were developed. The material for the research consisted of hot-worked rods made of magnesium alloy EN-MAMgAl3Zn1, two-phase titanium alloy Ti6Al4V and aluminium alloy AlCu4MgSi(A). Alloys used in components of means of transport should have satisfactory fatigue, including low-cycle fatigue, characteristics. Low-cycle fatigue tests were performed on an MTS-810 machine at room temperature. Low-cycle fatigue tests were performed for three total strain ranges Δεt = 0.8%, 1.0% and 1.2% with a cycle asymmetry coefficient R = –1. On the basis of the obtained results, characteristics of the fatigue life of materials, cyclic deformation σa = f(N) and cyclic deformation of the tested alloys were developed. The tests showed that titanium alloy Ti6Al4V was characterised by the highest fatigue life Nf, whereas the lowest fatigue life was found in the tests of the aluminium alloy AlCu4MgSi(A).
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Abstract

The development of a novel design for the toothed segment of drive transmission in longwall shearer is expected to significantly reduce the cost of individual components of the feed system and the related work of repair and renovations, increasing at the same time the safety of mine repair teams. The conducted experimental and numerical analysis of the state of stress and strain in the innovative design of the toothed segment has enabled estimating the maximum effort of the developed structure. Based on the results of fundamental mechanical studies of the cast L20HGSNM steel and fatigue tests combined with the numerical stress/strain analysis, the fatigue life curve was plotted for the examined casting of the rack.
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Abstract

The aim of the study is to compare flexible pavement design lifespans and the main factors which create their values for a standard structure and one with an anti-fatigue course AF at different parameter values of pavement and its load, relevant to their design processes. Depending on the mixture used for the anti-fatigue course or the course thickness, durability improvement of the pavement (compared to the durability of a standard structure) can be obtained by extending the design lifespan of the asphalt base course or by extending the design lifespan of the AF course. On sections with predominantly slow traffic, the lifespan decreases significantly compared to sections with typical vehicle speed – the relative decrease is greater if anti-fatigue course is applied.
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Abstract

The article presents the analysis of properties of the high-strength AlZnMgCu (abbr AlZn) aluminium alloy and estimates possibilities of its application for responsible structures with reduced weight as an alternative to iron alloy castings. The aim of the conducted studies was to develop and select the best heat treatment regime for a 7xx casting alloy based on high-strength materials for plastic working from the 7xxx series. For analysis, wrought AlZnMgCu alloy (7075) was selected. Its potential of the estimated as-cast mechanical properties indicates a broad spectrum of possible applications for automotive parts and in the armaments industry. The resulting tensile and fatigue properties support the thesis adopted, while the design works further confirm these assumptions.
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Abstract

The functionality of a prosthesis is determined by clinical procedures, the manufacturing technology applied, the material used and its strength parameters. The aim of the paper is to evaluate the static strength and fatigue strength of acrylic construction materials directly after the process of polymerisation and for aged materials. It has been confirmed that the deformation speed of the tested materials has an evident impact on their mechanical characteristics. With greater deformation speed, a consistent increase in the material elasticity was observed in static compression tests, which was accompanied by a reduction in engineering stresses at the final stage of deformation. The greatest fatigue strength was observed for Vertex. It was by about 33% greater than the strength of Villacryl – the material that has the lowest fatigue properties. The resistance of acrylic polymers to cyclic loading applied with the frequency of 1 Hz may become an indication for the selection of the material to be used in the clinical procedures in which a patient is provided with full dentures.
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Abstract

Presented in this paper are results of an experimental investigation on the rivet flexibility and load transmission in a riveted lap joint representative for the aircraft fuselage. The test specimens consisted of two aluminium alloy Alclad sheets joined with 3 rows of rivets. Two different squeeze forces were applied to install the rivets. Rivet flexibility measurements have been performed under constant amplitude fatigue loading using several methods including two original optical techniques developed by the present authors. The axial tractions in the sheets required to determine the rivet flexibility have been derived from strain gauge measurements. In order to eliminate the effect of secondary bending the strain gauges have been bonded at the same locations on the outside and faying surface of the sheet. The experiments enabled an evaluation of the usefulness of various techniques to determine the rivet flexibility. It was observed that, although the measured flexibility was identical for both end rivet rows, the load transfer through either of these rows was different. Previous experimental results by the present authors suggest that behind the non-symmetrical load transfer distribution through the joint are large differences between the rivet hole expansion in the sheet adjacent to the driven rivet head and the sheet under the manufactured head [1]. It has been concluded that commonly used computation procedures according to which the load transfer is only related to the rivet flexibility may lead to erroneous results.
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Abstract

The paper presents a solution of the control system for fatigue test stand MZGS-100 PL, comprising the integrated Real-Time controller based on FPGA (Field-Programmable Gate Array) technology with LabVIEW software. The described control system performs functions such as continuous regulation of speed induction motor, measuring strain of the lever machine and the test specimen, displacement of the polyharmonic vibrator, as well as the elimination of interferences, overload protection and emergency stop of the machine. The fatigue test stand also allows to set the pseudo-random history of energy parameter W(t).
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Abstract

A strip yield model implementation by the present authors is applied to predict fatigue crack growth observed in structural steel specimens under various constant and variable amplitude loading conditions. Attention is paid to the model calibration using the constraint factors in view of the dependence of both the crack closure mechanism and the material stress-strain response on the load history. Prediction capabilities of the model are considered in the context of the incompatibility between the crack growth resistance for constant and variable amplitude loading.
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Abstract

Casting porosity is the main factor influencing the fatigue properties of Al-Si alloys. Due to the increasing use of aluminum castings, porosity characterization is useful for estimating their fatigue strength. In principle, a combination of metallographic techniques and statistical pore analysis is a suitable approach for predicting the largest defect size that is critical for the casting. Here, the influence of modifiers and casting technology on the largest pore size population in AlSi7Mg alloy specimens is obtained and discussed adopting the Murakami's approach. However, porosity evaluation is a challenge in the case of microshrinkage pores, which are frequently found in industrial castings. Their complicated morphology prevents a reliable definition of an equivalent defect size based on metallographic techniques. This contribution reports the application of X-ray tomography to the 3D reconstruction of real pores in cast Al-Si alloys and provides insight into the complication of microshrinkage pore sizing by metallography.
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Abstract

The paper is an exploration of the optimal design parameters of a space-constrained electromagnetic vibration-based generator. An electromagnetic energy harvester is composed of a coiled polyoxymethylen circular shell, a cylindrical NdFeB magnet, and a pair of helical springs. The magnet is vertically confined between the helical springs that serve as a vibrator. The electrical power connected to the coil is actuated when the energy harvester is vibrated by an external force causing the vibrator to periodically move through the coil. The primary factors of the electrical power generated from the energy harvester include a magnet, a spring, a coil, an excited frequency, an excited amplitude, and a design space. In order to obtain maximal electrical power during the excitation period, it is necessary to set the system’s natural frequency equal to the external forcing frequency. There are ten design factors of the energy harvester including the magnet diameter (Dm), the magnet height (Hm), the system damping ratio (ζsys), the spring diameter (Ds), the diameter of the spring wire (ds), the spring length (ℓs), the pitch of the spring (ps), the spring’s number of revolutions (Ns), the coil diameter (Dc), the diameter of the coil wire (dc), and the coil’s number of revolutions (Nc). Because of the mutual effects of the above factors, searching for the appropriate design parameters within a constrained space is complicated. Concerning their geometric allocation, the above ten design parameters are reduced to four (Dm, Hm, ζsys, and Nc). In order to search for optimal electrical power, the objective function of the electrical power is maximized by adjusting the four design parameters (Dm, Hm, ζsys, and Nc) via the simulated annealing method. Consequently, the optimal design parameters of Dm, Hm, ζsys, and Nc that produce maximum electrical power for an electromagnetic energy harvester are found.
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Abstract

The paper presents results of research on an influence of listening fatigue on the detection of changes in spectrum and envelope of musical samples. The experiment was carried out under conditions which normally exist in a studio or on the stage when sound material is recorded and/or mixed. The equivalent level of presented sound samples is usually 90 dB and this is an average value of sound level existing in control room at various recording activities. Such musical material may be treated as a noise so Temporary Threshold Shift phenomenon may occur after several sessions and this may lead to a listening fatigue effect. Fourteen subjects participated in the first part of the experiment and all of them have the normal hearing thresholds. The stimuli contained the musical material with introduced changes in sound spectrum up to ±6 dB in low (100 Hz), middle (1 kHz) and high frequency (10 kHz) octave bands. In the second part of research five subjects listened to musical samples with introduced envelope changes up to ±6 dB in interval of 1 s. The time of loud music exposure was 60, 90 and 120 minutes and this material was completely different from the tested samples. It turned out that listening to the music with an Leq = 90 dB for 1 hour influences the hearing thresholds for middle frequency region (about 1-2 kHz) and this has been reflected in a perception of spectral changes. The perceived peaks/notches of 3 dB have the detection ability at 70% and the changes of low and high ranges of spectrum were perceived at the similar level. After the longer exposure, the thresholds shifted up to 4.5 dB for the all investigated stimuli. It has been also found that hearing fatigue after 1 hour of a listening influences the perception of envelope which gets worse of 2 dB in comparison to the fresh-ear listening. When time of listening to the loud music increases, the changes in envelopes which can be detected rise to the value of 6 dB after 90-minutes exposure and it does not increase with further prolongation of listening time.
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Abstract

Effects of charge composition on microstructure, mechanical and fatigue properties of nodular cast irons have been studied. For experiments, five melts of nodular cast iron were used – three types of unalloyed nodular cast irons (with different ratio of steel and pig iron in a charge and different additives for regulation of the chemical composition) and two types of alloyed nodular cast irons (SiMo- and SiCu- nodular cast iron). The microstructure of the specimens was evaluated according to a norm and by automatic image analysis. The mechanical properties were investigated by the tensile test, impact bending test and Brinell hardness test. The fatigue tests were carried out at sinusoidal cyclic push-pull loading at ambient temperature. The best mechanical properties were reached in the nodular cast iron alloyed by Si and Cu, what is related to its microstructure.
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