Magnetic properties of silicon iron electrical steel are determined by using standardized measurement setups and distinct excitation parameters. Characteristic values for magnetic loss and magnetization are used to select the most appropriate material for its application. This approach is not sufficient, because of the complex material behavior inside electrical machines, which can result in possible discrepancies between estimated and actual machine behavior. The materials’ anisotropy can be one of the problems why simulation and measurement are not in good accordance.With the help of a rotational single sheet tester, the magnetic material can be tested under application relevant field distribution. Thereby, additional effects of hysteresis and anisotropy can be characterized for detailed modelling and simulation.
Underground mining extraction causes the displacement and changes of stress fields in the surrounding rock mass. The determination of the changes is extremely important when the mining activity takes place in the proximity of post-flotation tailing ponds, which may affect the stability of the tailing dams. The deterministic modeling based on principles of continuum mechanics with the use of numerical methods, e.g. finite element method (FEM) should be used in all problems of predicting rock mass displacements and changes of stress field, particularly in cases of complex geology and complex mining methods. The accuracy of FEM solutions depends mainly on the quality of geomechanical parameters of the geological strata. The parameters, e.g. young modulus of elasticity, may require verification through a comparison with measured surface deformations using geodetic methods. This paper presents application of FEM in predicting effects of underground mining on the surface displacements in the area of the KGHM safety pillar of the tailing pond of the OUOW Żelazny Most. The area has been affected by room and pillar mining with roof bending in the years 2008-2016 and will be further exposed to room-and-pillar extraction with hydraulic filling in the years 2017–2019.
This paper deals with the modelling of traction linear induction motors (LIMs) for public transportation. The magnetic end effect inherent to these motors causes an asymmetry of their phase impedances. Thus, if the LIM is supplied from the three-phase symmetrical voltage, its phase currents become asymmetric. This effect must be taken into consideration when simulating the LIMs’ performance. Otherwise, when the motor phase currents are assumed to be symmetric in the simulation, the simulation results are in error. This paper investigates the LIM performance, considering the end-effect induced asymmetry of the phase currents, and presents a comparative study of the LIM performance characteristics in both the voltage and the current mode.
The accurate prediction of iron losses has become a prominent problem in electromagnetic machine design. The basis of all iron loss models is found in the spatial field-locus of the magnetic flux density (B) and magnetic field (H). In this paper the behavior of the measured BH-field-loci is considered in FEM simulation. For this purpose, a vector hysteresis model is parameterized based on the global measurements, which then can be used to reproduce the measurement system and obtain more detailed insights on the device and its local field distribution. The IEM has designed a rotary loss tester for electrical steel, which can apply arbitrary BH-field-loci occurring during electrical machine operation. Despite its simplicity, the proposed pragmatic analytical model for vector hysteresis provides very promising results.
By simulating the actual working conditions of a cable, the temperature variation rule of different measuring points under different load currents was analyzed. On this basis, a three-dimensional finite element model (FEM) was established, and the difference and influence factors between the simulation temperature and the experimental measured value were discussed, then the influence of thermal conductivity on the operating temperature of the conductor layer was studied. Finally, combined with the steady-state thermal conductivity model and the experimental measured data, the relation between thermal conductivity and load current was obtained.
The present paper is dedicated to presentation and energy verification of the methods of stabilization the strain energy by penalty coefficients. Verification of the methods is based on the consistency and ellipticity conditions to be satisfied by the finite elements. Three methods of stabilization are discussed. The first does not satisfy the above requirements. The second is consistent but cannot eliminate parasitic energy terms. The third method, proposed by the author, is based on the decomposition of the element stiffness matrix. The method can help to eliminate locking of the finite elements. For two-noded beam element with linear shape functions and exact integration a stabilized free of locking (and elliptical) element is received (equivalent to reduced integration element). Two plate finite elements are analyzed: four-noded rectangular element and DSG triangle. A new method of stabilization with the use of four independent parameters is proposed. The finite elements with this kind of stabilization satisfy the consistency condition. In the rectangular element it was not possible to eliminate one parasitic term of energy which appears during the procedure. For DSG triangle all parasitic terms of energy are eliminated. The penalty coefficients depends on the geometry of the triangle.
A numerical analysis of the initially clamped bolt joint subject to the working pressure is presented in the paper. Special, hexahedral 21- and 28-node isoparametric finite elements have been employed to model the contact zone. In this model, one takes into account loading due to the working pressure in the gap between the gasket and the flange arising as an effect of the progressing joint opening, what has not been considered in recent papers. Nonlinear stiffness characteristics of the bolt and the flange with the gasket are developed. Working pressure corresponding to the critical bolt force resulting in the joint leakage (complete opening between the gasket and the flange) is determined. FE computational results are compared with the available experimental results. The numerical results are presented using the authors' own graphical postprocessor.
The paper presents a new geotechnical solution indicating a possibility of effective building structures protection. The presented solutions enable minimization of negative effects of underground mining operations. Results of numerical modelling have been presented for an example of design of preventive ditches reducing the influence of mining operations on the ground surface. To minimize the mining damage or to reduce its reach it is reasonable to look for technical solutions, which would enable effective protection of building structures. So far authors concentrated primarily on the development of building structure protection methods to minimize the damage caused by the underground mining. The application of geotechnical methods, which could protect building structures against the mining damage, was not considered so far in scientific papers. It should be noticed that relatively few publications are directly related to those issues and there are no practical examples of effective geotechnical protection. This paper presents a geotechnical solution indicating a possibility of effective protection of building structures. The presented solutions enable minimization of negative effects of underground mining operations. Results of numerical modelling have been presented for an example of design of preventive ditches reducing the influence of mining operations on the ground surface. The calculations were carried out in the Abaqus software, based on the finite element method.
In this study, free and forced vibration responses of carbon nanotube reinforced uniform and tapered composite beams are investigated. The governing differential equations of motion of a carbon nanotube (CNT) reinforced uniform and tapered composite beams are presented in finite element formulation. The validity of the developed formulation is demonstrated by comparing the natural frequencies evaluated using present FEM with those of available in literature. Various parametric studies are also performed to investigate the effect of aspect ratio, percentage of CNT content, ply orientation, and boundary conditions on natural frequencies and mode shapes of a CNT reinforced composite beam. It was observed that the addition of carbon nanotube in fiber reinforced polymer composite (FRP) beam enhances the stiffness of the structure which consequently increases the natural frequencies and alters the mode shapes.
The present paper reports the results of theoretical and experimental studies of the process of die forging a bimetallic door handle intended for the production of a helicopter. The aim of the studies was to develop and implement a technology for die forging of a product with a specific mass similar to that of magnesium alloys which will have, however higher corrosion resistance. Numerical modelling and industrial tests were carried out based on the previously forging processes for an AZ31 alloy door handle. The material for the tests was a bimetallic bar produced by the explosive welding method, in which the core was of alloy AZ31, and the cladding layer was made of 1050A grade aluminium. The studies were conducted for two variants: Variant I – the forging process was mapped by numerical modelling and industrial tests for the die shape and parameters used in the forging of the AZ31 alloy door handle, Variant II – the tool shape was optimized and process parameters were selected so as to obtain a finished product characterized by a continuous Al layer. From the theoretical studies and experimental tests carried out it has been found that the application of the Variant I does not assure that a finished door handle characterized by a continuous cladding layer will be produced. Within this study, a novel method of bimetallic door handle die forging (Variant II) has been developed, which limits the amount of the flash formed and assures the integrity of the cladding layer.
The paper presents a numerical model of the novel design of the axial magnetic bearing with six cylindrical poles. The motivation behind this idea was to eliminate vibrations in rotating machinery due to the axial load. Common conception of such a bearing provides a single component of the electromagnetic force, which is not enough to reduce transverse and lateral vibrations of the armature. The proposed design allows for avoiding wobbling of the disc with the use of a few axial force components that are able to actively compensate the axial load and stabilise the disc in a balanced position. Before a real device is manufactured, a virtual prototype should be prepared. The accurate numerical model will provide essential knowledge about the performance of the axial magnetic bearing.
The paper presents the results of experimental-numerical tests of firing at aluminum composite materials. The test materials were manufactured by pressure infiltration of porous ceramic preforms made of -Al2O3 particles in the amount of 30% and 40% by volume. The EN AW-7075 alloy was chosen as the material matrix, and the steel 7.62×39 mm (M 43) FMJ (Full Metal Jacket) intermediate ammunition was selected for firing. In the result of the experiment, the samples were perforated with a clear difference in the muzzle diameter. The projectile with fragments caused damage to up to three reference plates placed behind the samples (witness plates) in composites with 40% of particles by volume. The mechanics of crack propagation during ballistic impacts of the projectile was characterized based on microstructure studies. Then, using numerical analysis of impact load, the examination of composite materials puncture in the ABAQUS environment was carried out. The Finite Element Method (FEM) was employed for the discretization of geometric models using Hex elements. The Johnson-Cook constitutive model describing the relationship between stress and strain in metal-ceramic composites was applied for the analyses. Numerical models were then subjected to numerical verification using smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH). Based on the obtained results, it was found that the hybrid FEM/SPH method correlates significantly with the experimental results.
Percutaneous RF ablation is one of alternative treatment for non-surgical liver tumors. Ablative changes in hepatic tissue can be successfully estimated using the finite element method. The authors created a 3D model of a multi-tine applicator immersed in liver tissue, and then determined the optimal values of voltage applied to such an RF electrode, which do not exceed the therapeutic temperature range valid during thermal ablation procedure. Importantly, the simulations were carried out for the RF electric probes with 2 to 5 evenly spaced arms. Additionally, the thermal damage of hepatic tissue for multi-armed applicators working at pre-defined limit values of voltages was established based on the Arrhenius model.
In this paper a scaling approach for the solution of 2D FE models of electric machines is proposed. This allows a geometrical and stator and rotor resistance scaling as well as a rewinding of a squirrel cage induction machine enabling an efficient numerical optimization. The 2D FEM solutions of a reference machine are calculated by a model based hybrid numeric induction machine simulation approach. In contrast to already known scaling procedures for synchronous machines the FEM solutions of the induction machine are scaled in the stator-current-rotor-frequency-plane and then transformed to the torque- speed-map. This gives the possibility to use a new time scaling factor that is necessary to keep a constant field distribution. The scaling procedure is validated by the finite element method and used in a numerical optimization process for the sizing of an electric vehicle traction drive considering the gear ratio. The results show that the scaling procedure is very accurate, computational very efficient and suitable for the use in machine design optimization.
This paper presents the possibility to apply numerical simulation in static analysis of reinforcedconcrete structure strengthened with carbon fibre reinforced polymer composite strips (CFRP).Reinforced concrete beams, with strengthening in form values CFRP made of carbon fibres andepoxy resin, featuring various width, as well as non-strengthened bent beams, were analysed. Thesimply supported beams arranged in a free support scheme were subjected to two concentratedforces within full range of loading (until collapse). The numerical analysis was performed throughapplication of the Finite Elements Method (FEM), and the calculation model applied took intoaccount the geometric and physical nonlinearity. The problem was solved by application of thequasi-staticstrategy method of calculations using ABAQUS software. While analysing the results,we focused on the run of changes in structure displacement and development of material damage,up to the point of destruction of the beam.
The paper presents an analysis of the effect of shape of primary silicon crystals on the sizes of stresses and deformations in a surface layer of A390.0 alloy by Finite Elements Method (FEM). Analysis of stereological characteristics of the studied alloy, performed based on a quantitative metallographic analysis in combination with a statistical analysis, was used for this purpose. The presented simulation tests showed not only the deposition depth of maximum stresses and strains, but also allowed for determining the aforementioned values depending on the shape of the silicon crystals. The studied material is intended for pistons of internal combustion engines, therefore the analysis of the surface layer corresponded to conditions during friction in a piston-cylinder system of an internal combustion engine having power of up to 100 kW. The obtained results showed important differences in the values of stresses and strains up to 15% between various shape of the silicon crystals. Crystals with sharp edges caused higher stresses and deformation locally than those with rounded shapes.
An industrial application is presented to validate a finite element analysis of 3-dimensional, nonlinear eddy-current problems with periodic excitation. The harmonicbalance method and the fixed-point technique are applied to get the steady state solution using the finite element method. The losses occurring in steel reinforcements underneath a reactor due to induced eddy-currents are computed and compared to measurements.
This paper aims at providing a framework for comprehensive steady-state time-domain analysis of rotating machines considering motion. The steady-state waveforms of electromagnetic and circuit quantities are computed via iterative solution of the nonlinear field-circuit-and-motion problem with constraints of time periodicity. The cases with forced speed and forced load torque are considered. A comparison of execution times with a conventional time-stepping transient model is carried out for two different machines. The numerical stability of a time-periodic model with forced speed is shown to be worse than that of traditional transient time-stepping one, although the model converges within a reasonable number of iterations. This is not the case if forced load via equation of mechanical balance is accounted for. To ensure convergence of the iterative process the physical equation of motion is replaced by the fixed-point equation. In this way the model delivers time-periodic solutions regarding not only the electromagnetic quantities but also the rotational speed.
The paper presents the methodology that makes it possible to evaluate computational model and introduce current corrections to it. The methodology ensures proper interpretation of nonlinear results of numerical analyses of thin-walled structures. The suggested methodology is based on carrying out, in parallel to nonlinear numerical analysis, experimental research on some selected crucial zones of loadcarrying structures. Attention is drawn to the determinants concerning the performance of an adequate experiment. The author points out on indicating the role of model tests as a fast and economically justified research instruments practicable when designing thin-walled load-carrying structures. The presented considerations are illustrated by an example of a structure whose geometrical complexity and ranges of deformation are characteristic for modern solutions applied in the load-carrying structures of airframes. As the representative example, one selected the area of the load-carrying structure that contains an extensive cut-out, in which the highest levels and stress gradients occur in the conditions of torsion evoking the post-buckling states within the permissible loads. The stress distributions within these ranges of deformations were used as the basis for determining the fatigue life of the structure.
In the paper, a mechanical set composed of a robot (manipulator) and of an elastic beam is considered. The beam is fixed to the top of the robot structure. In most of similar cases, undesired vibrations can be excited in the beam. They create an especially significant problem when dynamics in the robot braking period is examined. In the paper, estimation and modification of length of the braking period is proposed, in order to reduce the undesired vibrations. Investigations are restricted to numerical models, only. The rigid finite elements modelling and the multibody modelling are used together to obtain the numerical model required for the system. Instead of the classical rigid finite elements, its modified version is used, where some of the relative deformations are locked between the neighbour elements. As a result, sizes of the obtained matrices can be reduced as well as the time of the numerical calculations.