The effects of friction were observed in electric guitar strings passing over an electric guitar saddle. The effects of changing the ratio of the diameter of the winding to the diameter of the core of the string, the angle through which the string is bent, and the length on either side of the saddle were measured. Relative tensions were deduced by plucking and measuring the frequencies of vibration of the two portions of string. Coefficients of friction consistent with the capstan equation were calculated and were found to be lower than 0.26 for wound strings (nickel plated steel windings on steel cores) and lower than 0.17 for unwound (tin plated steel) strings. The largest values of friction were associated with strings of narrower windings and wider cores and this may be due to the uneven nature of the contact between the string and saddle for wound strings or due the surface of the windings deforming more, encouraging fresh (and therefore higher friction) metal to metal contact. It is advised to apply lubrication under the saddle to string contact point after first bringing the string up to pitch rather than before in order to prevent this fresh metal to metal contact.
The paper presents the influence of modification with phosphorus (CuP10) on the tribological properties of the alloy AlSi17Cu5Mg coupled abrasively with cast-iron EN GJL-350. Tests of coefficient of friction and wear of mass were conducted on tribological tester T-01. An important aspect in the assessment of the tribological properties is the analysis of initial material microstructure in reference to silumin which underwent modification with phosphorus. It was found that the difference in structure of tested materials, mainly sizes of primary silicon crystals significantly influences the tribological properties whereas the speed change of the friction knot does not have such big influence.
The article brightens scientific problem concerning the new ball coupling, which can be used in different branches of engineering. A comparative analysis of the results of research known freewheel. The design features a ball coupling on the basis of which it is easy to create a torque limiter evenly tightening bolted connections of various machines and mechanisms. Prepositional necessary analytical fallow that describe the basic values of the forces off the torque limiter, which have become a benchmark for the development of a new design, which received a patent of Ukraine for utility models. Shows a schematic design of torque limiter, which is based on the known developed ball coupling s full description of its constituent parts and principle of operation. Based design features selected design scheme, which allowed for a mathematical model for the analysis of the power unit. Analytically describes the amount of force that acts on working balls at the beginning of the release of their engagement with the groove of the driven coupling half, i.e. an analytical expression effort off the clutch. On the basis of the formulas A quantitative analysis of the impact force of the spring by the amount of torque limiter for different angles of inclination grooves of the coupling halves. Made confirmation of the classical position that the dependence of torque limiter the wire diameter of the spring is the value is not linear. On the basis of current research findings and made practical recommendations for the implementation of the results of research opportunities in industry engineering.
The broad range applications of Ultra-Fine Grained metals is substantially limited by the lack of a welding method that allows them to be joined without losing the strong refinement of structure. From this point of view, the solid state welding processes are privileged. Friction welding tests were carried out on UFG 316L stainless steel. A joining process at high temperature activates the recrystallization, therefore the friction welding parameters were selected according to the criterion of the lowest degree of weakness due to recrystallization in the heat affected zone. In order to characterize the structure of basic material and selected areas of the obtained joint, were performed SEM, TEM and metallographic examinations in terms of hardness and range of softening of the material and tensile test. Despite the short time and relatively low welding temperature, results of the test by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy confirmed the loss of the primary ultrafine structure in the Heat Affected Zone of welded joint.
The aim of the study was to analyse mechanical properties and microstructure of joints obtained using friction stir welding (FSW) technology. The focus of the study was on overlap linear FSW joints made of 1.4541 DIN 17441 steel sheets with thickness of 1.2 mm. Tools used during friction stir welding of steel joints were made of W-Re alloy. The joints were subjected to visual inspection and their load bearing capacity was evaluated by means of the tensile strength test with analysis of joint breaking mechanism. Furthermore, the joints were also tested during metallographic examinations. The analysis performed in the study revealed that all the samples of the FSW joints were broken outside the joint area in the base material of the upper sheet metal, which confirms its high tensile strength. Mean load capacity of the joints was 15.8 kN. Macroscopic and microscopic examinations of the joints did not reveal significant defects on the joint surface and in the cross-sections.
This paper presents a vibration analysis of a multi-link surgical micromanipulator joint, based on its detailed mathematical model. The manipulator’s prototype contains 6 links with the diameter of 8-10 [mm] and with the length of the modules of about 130 [mm]. It is driven by brushless servomotors with worm and planetary gears, for which the total transmission ratio is above 1/10000. Regarding the low efficiency of micro-robot drive systems and its vibrations, a reliable joint model and its performance is crucial for the development of a high-precision control system. To achieve the required accuracy, modelling framework has been enriched with an advanced model of friction. Simulation results are presented and discussed.
Aluminium metal matrix composites (AMMCs) are the fastest developing materials for structural applications. Friction Stir Processing (FSP) has evolved as a promising surface composite fabrication technique mainly because it is an eco-friendly and solid-state process. A spurt in the interest of research community and a resulting huge research output makes it difficult to find relevant information to further the research with objectivity. To facilitate this, the present article addresses the current state of the art and development in surface metal matrix fabrication through FSP with a specific focus on ex-situ routes. The available literature has been carefully read and categorized to present effects of particle size, morphology and elemental composition. The effect of various reinforcements on development of different functional characteristics is also discussed. Effect of main FSP parameters on various responses is presented with objectivity. Based on the studied literature concluding summary is presented in a manner in which the literature becomes useful to the researchers working on this important technology.
The paper discusses thermodynamic phenomena accompanying the flow of gas in a slotted seal. The analysis of the gas flow has been described based on an irreversible adiabatic transformation. A model based on the equation of total enthalpy balance has been proposed. The iterative process of the model aims at obtaining such a gas temperature distribution that will fulfill the continuity equation. The model allows for dissipation of the kinetic energy into friction heat by making use of the Blasius equation to determine the friction coefficient. Within the works, experimental research has been performed of the gas flow in a slotted seal of slot height 2 mm. Based on the experimental data, the equation of local friction coefficient was modified with a correction parameter. This parameter was described with the function of pressure ratio to obtain a mass flow of the value from the experiment. The reason for taking up of this problem is the absence of high accuracy models for calculating the gas flow in slotted seals. The proposed model allows an accurate determination of the mass flow in a slotted seal based on the geometry and gas initial and final parameters.
The article presents the effect of rotational and travelling speed and down force on the spindle torque acting on the tool in Friction Stir Processing (FSP) process. The response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to find a dependence combining the spindle torque acting on the tool with the rotational speed, travelling speed and the down force. The linear and quadratic models with interaction between parameters were used. A better fitting was achieved for a quadratic model. The studies have shown that the increase in rotational speed causes a decrease in the torque while the increase in travelling speed and down force causes an increase in the torque. The tests were conducted on casting aluminium alloy AlSi9Mg. Metallography examination has revealed that the application of FSP process results in a decrease in the porosity in the modified material and microstructure refining in the stir zone. The segregation of Si and Fe elements was evident in the parent material, while in the friction stir processed area this distribution was significantly uniform.
Experimental investigation was conducted on the thermal performance and pressure drop of a convective cooling loop working with ZnO aqueous nanofluids. The loop was used to cool a flat heater connected to an AC autotransformer. Influence of different operating parameters, such as fluid flow rate and mass concentration of nanofluid on surface temperature of heater, pressure drop, friction factor and overall heat transfer coefficient was investigated and briefly discussed. Results of this study showed that, despite a penalty for pressure drop, ZnO/water nanofluid was a promising coolant for cooling the micro-electronic devices and chipsets. It was also found that there is an optimum for concentration of nanofluid so that the heat transfer coefficient is maximum, which was wt. %=0.3 for ZnO/water used in this research. In addition, presence of nanoparticles enhanced the friction factor and pressure drop as well; however, it is not very significant in comparison with those of registered for the base fluid.
The tribological behavior of the PVD-TiAlN coated carbide inserts in dry sliding against two-phase (α-β) titanium alloy,Ti6Al4V grade, was investigated. A modified pin-on-disc device was used to conduct experiments under variable normal load and sliding speed. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray micro-analyses by EDS were applied for observations of wear scars and wear products. It was revealed that the increase of sliding speed contributes to decreasing the friction coefficient under a low normal force, whereas the increase of the normal loading causes the friction coefficient is less sensitive to changes in the sliding speed and its values are equal to μ = 0.26-0.34. The adhesive nature of wear along with severe abrasive action of the Ti alloy were documented.
The results of experimental study of solid state joining of tungsten heavy alloy (THA) with AlMg3Mn alloy are presented. The aim of these investigations was to study the mechanism of joining two extremely different materials used for military applications. The continuous rotary friction welding method was used in the experiment. The parameters of friction welding process i.e. friction load and friction time in whole studies were changed in the range 10 to 30kN and 0,5 to 10s respectively while forging load and time were constant and equals 50kN and 5s. The results presented here concerns only a small part whole studies which were described elsewhere. These are focused on the mechanism of joining which can be adhesive or diffusion controlled. The experiment included macro- and microstructure observations which were supplemented with SEM investigations. The goal of the last one was to reveal the character of fracture surface after tensile test and to looking for anticipated diffusion of aluminum into THA matrix. The results showed that joining of THA with AlMg2Mn alloy has mainly adhesive character, although the diffusion cannot be excluded.
Welding strength is very important in safe use of polypropylene sheets. The determination of welding parameters and design of the welding tool has an impact on the weld strength. The welding parameters can be determined experimentally. In this study, Charpy impact test is used to determine suitable welding parameters in welding of polypropylene sheets with FSW method. At the same time, the weld zone microstructure is examined and Shore hardness measurements are made. The impact tests were performed on samples cut from the welded sheets. The impact tests values and hardness values were presented graphically. According to the test results, some welded parts behaved similar to the matrix material. In some welding parameters, Charpy impact test values were obtained close to values of the main materials. The suitable welding parameters were determined for polypropylene sheets welding.
The AlMg10 aluminum alloy reinforced with SiC particles was subjected to friction stir processing (FSP). The composite was made by mechanical mixing and gravity casting. The mass fraction of SiC particles in the composite was about 10%. Evaluation of the effects of FSP treatment was performed by means of light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, EDS and hardness measurement. It was found that the inhomogeneous distribution of SiC particles and their agglomeration, which were observable in the cast composite, were completely eliminated after FSP modification. The treatment was also accompanied by homogenisation of the material in the mixing zone as well as fragmentation of both the matrix grain of the composite and SiC particles. In the case of SiC particles, a change in their shape was also observed. In the as-cast composite, particles with dimensions from 30 to 60 µm and a sharp-edged polyhedral shape prevailed, while in the material subjected to friction treatment, particles with dimensions from 20 to 40 µm and a more equiangular shape prevailed. Pores and other material discontinuities occurring frequently in the as-cast composite were completely eliminated after friction modification. The recorded changes in the microstructure of the material were accompanied by an increase in the hardness of the composite by nearly 35%. The conducted investigations have shown that FSP modification of the AlMg10/SiC composite made by the casting method leads to favorable microstructural changes in the surface layer and may be an alternative solution to other methods and technologies used in surface engineering.
Aluminum 6082-T6 panels were joined by friction stir welding utilizing a bobbin tool. A thermal simulation of the process was developed based upon machine torque and the temperature dependent yield stress utilizing a slip factor and an assumed coefficient of friction. The torque-based approach was compared to another simulation established on the shear layer methodology (SLM), which does not require the slip factor or coefficient of friction as model inputs. The SLM simulation, however, only models heat generation from the leading edges of the tool. Ultimately, the two approaches yielded matching temperature predictions as both methodologies predicted the same overall total heat generation from the tool. A modified shear layer approach is proposed that adopts the flexibility and convenience of the shear layer method, yet models heat generation from all tool/workpiece interfaces.
Emergence of new designs for internal combustion engines resulted in a necessity to search for new materials which will rise to excessive technological requirements under operating conditions of modern internal combustion engines of up to 150 kW. Focusing only on material properties, theoretically existing alloys should meet presents requirements. More importantly, existing materials are well fitted to the entire crank-piston system. Thus, there is a need for a more thorough examination of these materials. The paper presents studies on determination of coefficient of friction μ and wear for the A390.0 alloy modified with AlTi5B master alloy combined with EN GJL-350 cast iron. The characteristics of a T-11 tribological tester (pin on disc) used for the tests, as well as the methodology of the tribological tests, were described. Also, the analysis of the surface distribution of elements for the pin and the disc was presented. The studies were realized in order to find whether the analyzed alloy meets the excessive requirements for the materials intended for pistons of modern internal combustion engines. The results show that the A390.0 alloy can only be applied to a load of 1.4 MPa. Above this value was observed destructive wear, which results in the inability to use it in modern internal combustion engines.
The friction and wear properties of 201HT aluminum alloys and the corresponding competitive coupons were tested on an electrohydraulic servo face friction and wear testing machine (MM-U10G). The microstructures of the competitive coupons were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and consequently the corresponding friction and wear mechanisms were studied. The results demonstrated that: (1) the best competitive material of friction and wear performance of the 201HT was the 201HTC. (2) the 201HTC modified by carbon following the initial mill for oil storage of the micro-groove to be produced, increased the corresponding lubrication performance reduced the friction coefficient and wear rate effectively. (3) the 201HT-201HTC could obtain both better friction and wear mainly due to the initial process of grinding following the 201HT plastic deformation occurred in the surface and the formation of a series of re-melting welding points, whereas the 201HT material hardness would be similar to the 201HTC material hardness, which led into the competitive material friction and wear performance improvement.
In order for the working status of the aluminum alloyed hydraulic valve body to be controlled in actual conditions, a new friction and wear design device was designed for the cast iron and aluminum alloyed valve bodies comparison under the same conditions. The results displayed that: (1) The oil leakage of the aluminum alloyed hydraulic valve body was higher than the corresponding oil leakage of the iron body during the initial running stage. Besides during a later running stage, the oil leakage of the aluminum alloyed body was lower than corresponding oil leakage of the iron body; (2) The actual oil leakage of different materials consisted of two parts: the foundation leakage that was the leakage of the valve without wear and wear leakage that was caused by the worn valve body; (3) The aluminum alloyed valve could rely on the dust filling furrow and melting mechanism that led the body surface to retain dynamic balance, resulting in the valve leakage preservation at a low level. The aluminum alloy modified valve body can meet the requirements of hydraulic leakage under pressure, possibly constituting this alloy suitable for hydraulic valve body manufacturing.
This work presents a numerical simulation of aviation structure joined by friction stir welding, FSW, process. The numerical simulation of aviation structure joined by FSW was created. The simulation uses thermomechanical coupled formulation. Th model required creation of finite elements representing sheets, stiffeners and welds, definition of material models and boundary conditions. The thermal model took into account heat conduction and convection assigned to appropriate elements of the structure. Time functions were applied to the description of a heat source movement. The numerical model included the stage of welding and the stage of releasing clamps. The output of the simulation are residual stresses and deformations occurring in the panel. Parameters of the global model (the panel model) were selected based on the local model (the single joint model), the experimental verification of the local model using the single joint and the geometry of the panel joints.
In the article the equations have been worked making it possible to model the motion of freerunning grain mixture flow on a flat sloping vibrating sieve within the framework of shallow water theory. Free-running grain mixture is considered as a heterogeneous system consisting of two phases, one of which represents solid particles and the other one gas. The mixture is brought into a state of fluidity by means of high-frequency vibration imposition. Coefficients of internal and external friction and dynamic-viscosity decrease by exponential law as the fluctuation intensity is increased. When considering grain mixture dynamics, the following assumptions are put forward: we ignore the air presence in space between particles, we consider the density of particles to be constant, the free-running mixture is similar to Newtonian liquid. The basic system of equations of grain mixture dynamics is due to the laws of continuum mechanics. The equation of continuity is issued from the law of conservation of mass, and the dynamic equations are issued from the law of variation of momentum. The stress tensor equals to the sum of the equilibrium tensor and the dissipative tensor. The equilibrium part of the stress tensor is represented by the spherical tensor, which is found to conform to Pascal law for liquids, and the dissipative part, which is responsible for viscous force effect and defined by Navier-Stokes law. Boundary conditions on the surfaces (restricting the capacity of the free-running grain mixture) have been researched. The distributions of apparent density and velocity field are assigned at the inlet and outlet flow sections of the mixture. The normal velocity component of the grain mixture on the side frames and on the sieve becomes zero, which meets the no-fluid-loss condition of the medium through the frame. Beyond that point at this time we satisfy dynamic conditions, which characterize the mixture sliding down the hard frame, motion flow resistance force is represented as average velocity linear dependence. A kinematic condition and two dynamic ones are stipulated on the free surface layer. One of the conditions states mass flow continuity across the free surface, the other one states the stress continuity while passing through the free surface. The basic premise of planned motion equations is the condition of small size of flow depth in comparison with its width. With the use of shallow water theory the basic principles of the equations of flow dynamics are simplified and for their solving a Cauchy problem can be set.
The process of wheel - rail interaction is largely determined by dynamic properties of the car, improvement of which is possible by improving design of the bogie and its basic elements. The article analyses and discusses the problems that have arisen in recent years in the course of operation of bogie 18-100. Tribological and mechanical properties of a friction wedge-type oscillation damper are studied.
The objective of the investigation was to identify surface roughness after turning with wedges of coated sintered carbide. The investigation included predicting the average surface roughness in the dry machining of Duplex Stainless Steel (DSS) and the determination of load curves together with roughness profiles for various cutting conditions. The load curves and roughness profiles for various cutting wedges and variable cutting parameters were compared. It has been shown that dry cutting leads to a decrease in friction for lubricated surfaces, providing a small initial contact area where the surface is contacted. The study has been performed within a production facility during the production of electric motor parts and deep-well pumps.
In the paper the modelling of thermo-mechanical effects in the process of friction welding of corundum ceramics and aluminium is presented. The modelling is performed by means of finite element method. The corundum ceramics contains 97% of Al2O3. The mechanical and temperature fields are considered as coupled fields. Simulation of loading of the elements bonded with the heat flux from friction heat on the contact surface is also shown. The heat flux was modified in the consecutive time increments of numerical solutions by changeable pressure on contact surface. Time depending temperature distribution in the bonded elements is also determined. The temperature distribution on the periphery of the cylindrical surfaces of the ceramics and Al was compared to the temperature measurements done with a thermovision camera. The results of the simulation were compared to those obtained from the tests performed by means of a friction welding machine
Sound joint of hollow-extruded 6005A-T6 aluminum alloy was achieved by friction stir welding and its high cycle fatigue performance was mainly investigated. As a result, the joint fatigue limit reaches 128.1 MPa which is 55% of the joint tensile strength. The fatigue fracture mainly occurs at the boundary between the stir zone and thermo-mechanically affected zone due to the large difference in the grain size. This difference is caused by the layered microstructure of the base material. The shell pattern with parallel arcs is the typical morphology in the fracture surface and the distance between arcs is increased with the increase of stress level. The specimen with the fracture located in the stir zone possesses a relatively low fatigue life.