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Abstrakt

Notes about a handbook of Italian grammar by a Croatian philologist Dragutin Antun Parčić – A handbook of Italian grammar, written in Croatian by Croatian philologist Parčić, confirms that in the past educated Croatian-speaking people were bilingual and at the same time it proves that lower classes aimed to study Italian as well. The paper analyses the functionality and appropriateness of topics presented in the Parčić manuscript because it is obvious that the author was keen to help his Croatian-speaking students in the acquisition of Italian.
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The review covers Ruselina Nicolova’s The Bulgarian Grammar. This is a revised version of Bǔlgarska gramatika. Morfologiia (Sofiia 2008) edited in English by Frank & Timme (Berlin 2017). This outstanding achievement is appraised highly by the review author. The review compares the new work with an earlier academic morphology of Bulgarian (Gramatika na sǔvremenniia bǔlgarski knižoven ezik, t. 2: Morfologiia, Sofiia 1983). It concludes that the Grammar of R. Nicolova makes important progress in semantically and functionally oriented type of Bulgarian linguistic description as well as that publication of this study translated to English is important because it provides a widened reception of the work.
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Traces of the idea of verbal valency structure in nineteenth-century grammars – This paper aims to show how K.F. Beckers’s notion of “subjektive” and “objektive Verben” (i.e. those always used with an “ergänzende Objekt”, a ‘completive object’) is a rough forerunner to the modern idea of dependency grammar. In Italy, this theoretical core was assumed by Raffaello Lambruschini in 1840 (and, after him, by the basic school grammar La grammatica del mio Felicino written by Ulisse Poggi, 1865, 18722), but with a huge trivialisation: subjective verbs were identified with intransitive verbs and objective verbs with transitive ones.
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The object of analysis in the paper is semantic extension of a lexical unit. In order to approach it, the author chooses one of the cognitive linguistics theories – Cognitive Grammar (Langacker 1987; 1990; 2000a; 2000b; 2008, etc.). Two of the issues of semantic extension are emphasised. First, it is the grounding of semantic extension in the encyclopaedic knowledge shared by the interlocutors and second, the emergence of the schema implied by the relation of extension. The paper begins with an outline of the postulates of Cognitive Grammar, which are subsequently applied to an analysis of the French lexical unit corps [body], whose extended senses are found in the domain of the structure of musical instruments. In the conclusion the author discusses the dimensions of complexity of the process of semantic extension, one of which is a chain of relations based on metonymy and metaphor.
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The article attempts to reach the elements that control the efforts of constituting a specific type of vision of the past, with which — as I believe — we are dealing in the contemporary public discourse about history.
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Abstrakt

Architektura tworzona w Polsce 21.wieku, czasem jest sposobem autoprezentacji, kiedy indziej sposobem na zakrzykiwanie innych. Bywa też gadulstwem bez tezy, za to z dużą dozą źle rozumianej asertywności. Powinniśmy budować czytelność działań architektonicznych i czynić je bardziej zobiektywizowanymi oraz związanymi ze współczesnością. Powinniśmy– więc–zacząć od najbardziej podstawowych reguł, od swoistej gramatyki architektury. Tożsamość można rozumieć jako zespół cech, które np. pozwalają odróżnić architekturę powstająca w Polsce od architektury zakorzenionej gdzie indziej. Cech niekoniecznie przecież formalnych. Aby zrozumieć czym jest w istocie duch miejsca: wg. starożytnych Rzymian każdy niezależny byt miał swego „ genius’a” – „ducha stróża”. Duch ten, daje życie Ludziom i miejscom, towarzyszy im od urodzin aż do śmierci, determinując ich charakter lub treść.
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Abstrakt

The present paper considers the novel O?on-o?ak bala sak ("Quite a Long Childhood" or "A Long, Long Childhood") by Mostay / Mostaj Karim or Mustay Karim, if transliterated from Russian (1919-2005), a prominent Bashkir writer, poet, publicist and playwright, whose contribution to the Bashkir literature has been honoured with the title of the People's Poet of the Republic of Bashkortostan. Apart from the fact that the work under consideration is within the scope of the author's current research, the reason for choosing exactly this piece of M. Karim's literary work is that it is perhaps the first and best known example of an autobiographic novel written in Bashkir. This fact in turn implies that this novel is a valuable object of linguistic and cultural research.
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