The study was aimed to determine the hydrodynamic of water seepage through a porous bed saturated with different amounts of high viscosity liquids. An attempt was made to describe the process of seepage through beds saturated with oils using the theory of outflow of a liquid from the tank. It was assumed that the discharge coefficient will represent changes of flow resistance during the process. It was found that the dependence of this factor on time is linear. In the second part of this work kinetics of the seepage process was investigated. Dependence of oil concentrations, eluted from the deposit with the flowing water, on time has been evaluated. Thanks to these studies it was possible to determine the effectiveness of an elution of high viscosity liquids from porous beds using water as the washing out liquid.
The paper presents selected granular ceramic materials available on the Polish market. Their characteristics have been determined in the aspect on application in the production of iron alloy-ceramic composite. The possibility of obtaining a composite layer by means of bulk grains in molds of plates were considered, which was the foundation for experimental molds to be used in service tests. On the basis of obtaining results was stated that the knowledge of the characteristics of bulk grains enables the calculation of their quantity necessary for the composite production. When using the bulk grains the thickness of the composite layer is restricted by the thermal relations (cooler) and the physical phenomena (buoyancy, metal static pressure). Increasing amount of grains above definite condition causes surface defects in the castings. Each casting, due to its weight, shape and place of composite layer production requires an individual approach, both at the stage of formation and that of calculation of the required quantity of ceramic grains.
Mixing of granular materials is unquestionably important. Mixing solids is common in industrial applications and frequently represents a critical stage of the processes. The effect of mixing determines the quality of the products. Achieving a gas or liquid mixture ideally homogeneous in terms of composition in the case of dissolving components is not that difficult, while in case of granular materials that usually differ in sizes and densities, obtaining a homogenous mixture is practically impossible. The aim of the paper is to present the kinetics of mixing of a multicomponent, nonhomogeneous granular mixture. For the first time in mixing of granular materials, a reference has been made to the terminology used in kinematics of fluid mixtures to determine the state of the mixture: turbulent or laminar. By means of statistical analysis the mixing process was divided into two stages. The initial phase of the process was called the stage of turbulent changes, due to large differences in the quality of the observed mixtures; the final step of the process was called the stage of laminar, stable changes, where further mixing did not result in a significant improvement in quality. The research was conducted in industrial conditions in a two-tonne mixer.
The article presents research results of the introduction of powdery activated carbon to the existing technological system of the groundwater treatment stations in a laboratory, pilot plant and technical scale. The aim of the research was to reduce the content of organic compounds found in the treated water, which create toxic organic chlorine compounds (THM) after disinfection with chlorine. Nine types of powdery active carbons were tested in laboratory scale. The top two were selected for further study. Pilot plant scale research was carried out for the filter model using CWZ-30 and Norit Sa Super carbon. Reduction of the organic matter in relation to the existing content in the treated water reached about 30%. Research in technical scale using CWZ-30 carbon showed a lesser efficiency with respect to laboratory and pilot-plant scale studies. The organic matter decreased by 15%. Since filtration is the last process before the individual disinfection, an alternative solution is proposed, i.e. the second stage of filtration with a granular activated carbon bed, operating in combined sorption and biodegradation processes. The results of tests carried out in pilot scale were fully satisfactory with the effectiveness of 70–100%.
The paper provides statistical analysis of the photographs of four various granular materials (peas, pellets, triticale, wood chips). For analysis, the (parametric) ANOVA and the (nonparametric) Kruskal-Wallis tests were applied. Additionally, the (parametric) two-sample t-test and (non-parametric) Wilcoxon Rank-Sum Test for pairwise comparisons were performed. In each case, the Bonferroni correction was used. The analysis shows a statistical evidence of the presence of differences between the respective average discrete pixel intensity distributions (PID), induced by the histograms in each group of photos, which cannot be explained only by the existing differences among single granules of different materials. The proposed approach may contribute to the development of a fast inspection method for comparison and discrimination of granular materials differing from the reference material, in the production process.
A two-scale numerical homogenization approach was used for granular materials. At small-scale level, granular micro-structure was simulated using the discrete element method. At macroscopic level, the finite element method was applied. An up-scaling technique took into account a discrete model at each Gauss integration point of the FEM mesh to derive numerically an overall constitutive response of the material. In this process, a tangent operator was generated with the stress increment corresponding to the given strain increment at the Gauss point. In order to detect a loss of the solution uniqueness, a determinant of the acoustic tensor associated with the tangent operator was calculated. Some elementary geotechnical tests were numerically calculated using a combined DEM-FEM technique.