The paper describes experimental investigations of vibrations caused by train passages in the shallow underground tunnel (in Warsaw, Poland) in comparison to the results of measurements of vibrations from ground surface transportation (trams and buses). Propagation of surface ground vibrations from underground tunnel is presented. The problem of dynamic response of a building and influence of vibrations caused by underground on people residing in a building is discussed as well. The dynamic response of the building to underground vibrations is essentially different from the response of a building excited by surface sources of transport vibrations. Also the distribution of influence of the transport vibrations on people in the building is significantly different in both cases.
Before disassemble and demolition of five granulation towers the authors planned and carried out measurements of the intensity of vibrations induced during the fall of the dismantled components of towers on the ground. The main aim of the study was to determine the maximum permissible weight of falling elements of the towers during the demolition, in terms of ensuring the protection of buildings and equipment located in the vicinity of the works. It was unacceptable to increase the vibration amplitude displacement in each section of measurement on each of the three perpendicular axes by more than 2 μm peak-to-peak value and the absolute velocity of RMS of vibration amplitude couldn’t be increased by more than 1 mm/sec value than the background vibration during the demolition of the towers. Preliminary experimental studies were conducted on a test stand and the measurements were made on the real object. The amplitudes of vibration waves displacement and velocity were recorded on the measurement section in the direction of the protected building. The results of measurements were used to identify the propagation of the shock wave and the effectiveness of the proposed insulation layers.
This work presents the methodology for analyzing the impact of ground vibrations induced during the drilling of gas/oil exploration wells on the surrounding constructions, as well as on humans and the natural environment. In the primary stage, this methodology is based on measurements of ground vibrations induced by a specific type of drilling system in the so-called reference site. In the next stage, ground vibrations are estimated in similar conditions to another design site, these conditions are assumed for a given drilling system, treated as a vibration source. In both sites, special seismic and geotechnical data are collected to construct numerical models for dynamic analyses. Finally, if it is required, a protection system is proposed with respect to the drilling technology and local conditions. The methodology presented has been tested on the terrain of an active natural gas mine used as the design site, and located in the southeastern part of Poland. The reference site was placed in the terrain of a working drilling system in similar conditions in the central part of Poland. Based on the results of numerical simulations, one may verify the different locations of the drilling rig in the design site with respect to the existing industrial structure. Due to the hazard from destructive ground vibrations, a certain vibroisolation system was proposed at the design site. Based on the results of numerical simulations one could rearrange the components of the drilling system in order to provide maximum security for the surrounding structures.
The major downside of blasting works is blast vibrations. Extensive research has been done on the subject and many predictors, estimating Peak Particle Velocity (PPV), were published till date. However, they are either site specific or global (unified model regardless of geology) and can give more of a guideline than exact data to use. Moreover, the model itself among other factors highly depends on positioning of vibration monitoring instruments. When fitting of experimental data with best fit curve and 95% confidence line, the equation is valid only for the scaled distance (SD) range used for fitting. Extrapolation outside of this range gives erroneous results. Therefore, using the specific prediction model, to predetermine optimal positioning of vibration monitoring instruments has been verified to be crucial. The results show that vibration monitoring instruments positioned at a predetermined distance from the source of the blast give more reliable data for further calculations than those positioned outside of a calculated range. This paper gives recommendation for vibration monitoring instruments positioning during test blast on any new site, to optimize charge weight per delay for future blasting works without increasing possibility of damaging surrounding structures.