Lower Carboniferous limestone has been extracted in the “Czatkowice” open-pit hill-slope quarry in southern Poland since 1947, for the needs of metallurgical and building industries, as well as farming. We can distinguish two aquifers in the Czatkowice area: the Quaternary porous aquifer and the Carboniferous fissure-porous one. Two vertical zones representing different hydrodynamic characteristics can be indentified in the Carboniferous formations. One is a weathering zone and the other one the zone of fissures and interbedding planes. Groundwater inflows into the quarry workings have been observed at the lowest mining level (+315 m above the sea level (asl)) for over 30 years. This study concerns two hypotheses of the sources of such inflows originating either from (a) the aeration zone or from (b) the saturation zone. Inflows into the quarry combine into one stream flowing gravitationally to the doline under the pile in the western part of the quarry. This situation does not cause a dewatering need. Extending eastward mining and lowering of the exploitation level lead to increased inflows.
Oil derivatives are commonly used and they play a key role in the economy. They are used in many industries. Such big amounts of oil derivatives products generate vast quantity of pollution. Those pollutants can get into the ground and water beyond any control during catastrophes or due to inadequately managed waste and storage. The aim of the paper was to determine the level of oil derivatives pollution in the groundwater on the area of a former airbase, where between 1950 and 1990 the Soviet Army stationed. Analysis was carried out on groundwater samples from three piezometers placed on the area of the former airbase. In the samples some parameters were determined, i.e. temperature, reaction, electrolytic conductivity, the depth of groundwater surface, the content of aliphatic hydrocarbons, monoaromatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Determined amount of dissolved hydrocarbons was large what proves unsatisfactory effectiveness of previous rehabilitation processes.
The study of groundwaters was carried out in two different forest ecosystems of Słowiński National Park: Vaccinio uliginosi-Betuletum pubescentis and Empetro nigri-Pinetum in the period of 2002-2005. Differences were found in the position of the groundwater table and in the concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus compounds in the investigated forest associations. In the Vaccinio uliginosi-Betuletum pubescentis association the groundwater table was found on average at a depth of -73.3 cm, while in Empetro nigri-Pinetum at -90.2 cm. No statistically significant effect of precipitation on the position of the groundwater table was found in this study. Statistical calculations (U Mann-Whitney test) for groundwaters in the analyzed forest associations showed statistically significant differences in the dynamics of concentrations of total nitrogen (T-N), organic nitrogen (Norg.), nitrate nitrogen (N-NO3 ), total phosphorus (T-P), organic phosphorus (Porg.) and the level of groundwaters.
The occurrence and temporal variations of polar shallow groundwater systems and associated seasonal springs and seeps are studied using the example of springs and seeps in the vicinity of the eastern coast of Petuniabukta in central Spitsbergen, Svalbard. Altogether, 37 groundwater outflows were documented. The outflows were mostly located at the foot of talus slopes and were characterised by small discharges (<1 dm 3 s −1 ). The water emerging from the outflows varied widely in terms of temperature and specific electrical conductivity (SpC). These outflows were supplied mainly by water from permafrost, melting snowfields and rainfall. Daily changes were studied in four of the outflows during July 2006. The observed water discharges ranged from 0.04 to 0.7 dm 3 s −1 , and the temporal variations for the particular outflows were on the order of 50% of the average value. The water temperature amplitude for particular outflows was up to 1.5 ° C. The SpC was approximately 200 μScm −1 and increased with time by almost 40 μScm −1 in the case of two outflows drain − ing talus slopes. The water emerging from two springs in carbonate and sulphate rocks had an SpC up to 1295 μScm −1 , and in one case, its increase with time was observed to be 300 μScm −1 . The increase in the SpC with time probably reflects a decrease in the contribution of snow meltwater in the groundwater recharge. Among the major local factors affecting the groundwater outflows’ water quality and discharge rate were the following: geomorphology, rock type, meteorological conditions, state of permafrost and local water storage
The article presents research results of the introduction of powdery activated carbon to the existing technological system of the groundwater treatment stations in a laboratory, pilot plant and technical scale. The aim of the research was to reduce the content of organic compounds found in the treated water, which create toxic organic chlorine compounds (THM) after disinfection with chlorine. Nine types of powdery active carbons were tested in laboratory scale. The top two were selected for further study. Pilot plant scale research was carried out for the filter model using CWZ-30 and Norit Sa Super carbon. Reduction of the organic matter in relation to the existing content in the treated water reached about 30%. Research in technical scale using CWZ-30 carbon showed a lesser efficiency with respect to laboratory and pilot-plant scale studies. The organic matter decreased by 15%. Since filtration is the last process before the individual disinfection, an alternative solution is proposed, i.e. the second stage of filtration with a granular activated carbon bed, operating in combined sorption and biodegradation processes. The results of tests carried out in pilot scale were fully satisfactory with the effectiveness of 70–100%.
One of the most important problems concerning contaminant transport in the ground is the problem related to the definition of parameters characterizing the adsorption capacity of ground for the chosen contaminants relocating with groundwater. In this paper, for chloride and sulfate indicators relocating in sandy ground, the numerical values of retardation factors (Ra) (treated as average values) and pore groundwater velocities with adsorption (ux/Ra) (in micro-pore ground spaces) are taken into consideration. Based on 2D transport equation the maximal dimensionless concentration values (C*max c) in the chosen ground cross-sections were calculated. All the presented numerical calculations are related to the unpublished measurement series which was marked in this paper as: October 1982. For this measurement series the calculated concentration values are compared to the measured concentration ones (C*max m) given recently to the author of this paper. In final part of this paper the parameters characterizing adsorption capacity (Ra, ux/Ra) are also compared to the same parameters calculated for the two earlier measurement series. Such comparison also allowed for the estimation of a gradual in time depletion of adsorption capacity for the chosen sandy ground.
This paper presents a general overview of 2D mathematical models for both the inorganic and the organic contaminants moving in an aquifer, taking into consideration the most important processes that occur in the ground. These processes affect, to a different extent, the concentration reduction values for the contaminants moving in a groundwater. In this analysis, the following processes have been taken into consideration: reversible physical non-linear adsorption, chemical and biological reactions (as biodegradation/biological denitrification) and radioactive decay (for moving radionuclides). Based on these 2D contaminant transport models it has been possible to calculate numerically the dimensionless concentration values with and without all the chosen processes in relation to both the chosen natural site (piezometers) and the chosen contaminants.In this paper, it has also been possible to compare all the numerically calculated concentration values to the measured concentration ones (in the chosen earlier piezometers) in relation to both the new unpublished measurement series of May 1982 and the new set of parameters used in these 2D contaminant transport models (as practical verification of these models).