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Abstract

Mixture of nickel and titanium powders were milled in planetary mill under argon atmosphere for 100 hours at room temperature. Every 10 hours the structure, morphology and chemical composition was studied by X-ray diffraction method (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) as well as electron transmission microscope (TEM). Analysis revealed that elongation of milling time caused alloying of the elements. After 100 hours of milling the powders was in nanocrystalline and an amorphous state. Also extending of milling time affected the crystal size and microstrains of the alloying elements as well as the newly formed alloy. Crystallization of amorphous alloys proceeds above 600°C. In consequence, the alloy (at room temperature) consisted of mixture of the B2 parent phase and a small amount of the B19’ martensite. Dependently on the milling time and followed crystallization the NiTi alloy can be received in a form of the powder with average crystallite size from 1,5 up to 4 nm.
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Abstract

The Mn-Zn ferrite powders prepared by high energy ball milling were heat-treated, subsequently compacted and sintered by spark plasma sintering (SPS). Based on the observation of microstructure, the characteristics of samples after SPS were investigated and compared with ones after conventional sintering. The size of initial powders was approximately 650 nm and decreased to 230 nm after milling at 300 rpm for 3 h. After heat treatment at 973K for 1h, the milled powders became larger to approximately 550 nm in size again and the peaks of Mn2O3 disappeared in XRD patterns. In the samples after SPS, the Fe2O3 and MnZnFe2O4 phases decomposed at the higher temperatures than 1173K and 1373K, respectively, while only MnZnFe2O4 phase was detected in the samples conventionally sintered at 1273~1673K. As the sintering temperature increased, the relative density after SPS increased more quickly than that after conventional sintering. In particular, it reached approximately 99% after SPS at 1473K.
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Abstract

The current study were performed in order to assess the fabrication possibility of the metal-ceramic composites based on nanocrystalline substrates. The influence of the variable time of the high energy ball-milling (10, 30 and 50 h) on the structure, pores morphology and microhardness of Ti/ZrO2 and Ti/Al2O3 compositions was studied. The X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the composite formation for all milling times and sintering in the case of Ti/ZrO2 system. Decomposition of substrates during milling process of Ti/Al2O3 system was also observed. Additionally, the changes of lattice parameter as a function of milling time were studied. The morphology of powders and the microstructure of the sintered samples were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Also, analysis of microhardness and pores structure were performed.
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Abstract

Mixture of nickel and titanium powders were milled in planetary mill under argon atmosphere for 100 hours at room temperature. Every 10 hours the structure, morphology and chemical composition was studied by X-ray diffraction method (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) as well as electron transmission microscope (TEM). Analysis revealed that elongation of milling time caused alloying of the elements. After 100 hours of milling the powders was in nanocrystalline and an amorphous state. Also extending of milling time affected the crystal size and microstrains of the alloying elements as well as the newly formed alloy. Crystallization of amorphous alloys proceeds above 600°C. In consequence, the alloy (at room temperature) consisted of mixture of the B2 parent phase and a small amount of the B19' martensite. Dependently on the milling time and followed crystallization the NiTi alloy can be received in a form of the powder with average crystallite size from 1,5 up to 4 nm.
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