An alternative method for analysis of acoustic emission (AE) signals generated by partial discharges (PD), based on a correlation between voltage phase run and AE pulses, so called phase resolved PD pattern (PRPD), is presented in the paper. PRPD pattern is a well-known analysis tool commonly used in such PD diagnostic methods as conventional electrical and UHF ones. Moreover, it yields various signal analysis abilities and allows a direct correlation indication between measurement results achieved using different methods. An original PRPD measurement methodology applied for AE method as well as some exemplary measurement results and further data analysis capabilities are presented in the paper. Also a comparative analysis of PRPD patterns achieved using various measurement methods and different PD source configurations have been investigated. All presented experiments were done under laboratory conditions using PD model sources immersed in the insulation oil. The main purpose of the presented research is to indicate an all-embracing analytical tool that yields an ability to direct comparison (qualitative as well as quantitative) of the AE measurement results with other commonly applied PD measurement methods. The presented results give a solid fundamental for further research work concerning a direct correlation method for AE and other described in the paper diagnostic techniques, mainly in order to continue PD phenomena analysis and assessment in real life high voltage apparatus insulation systems under normal onsite operation conditions.
Partial discharges (PD) are influencing electrical insulating systems of high voltage electrical devices. Typically, in laboratory and diagnostics AC tests focused on measuring and analysis of PD, a pure sinusoidal voltage waveform is assumed. However, in practice the spectral content of the working voltage is rarely so ideal and additional spectral components have a significant impact on the discharge behaviour in electrical insulation systems. In this paper the influence of voltage harmonics on PD behaviour and phase-resolved PD patterns evolution is analysed. The presented experiments were conducted on a specimen representing a gaseous inclusion embedded in electrical insulation. The experimental results showed that various harmonic compositions superimposed on the fundamental sinusoidal waveform have a significant impact on PD intensity and maximum charge. In consequence, the derived patterns of PD phase, and magnitude distributions are distorted, and statistical parameters calculated on their basis are changed. In certain en- vironments, neglecting harmonic content in the testing voltage may lead to a misleading interpretation and assessment of PD severity.
The main problem in the measurement of airborne sound insulation is the measurement of the sound power radiated by the barrier, in practice performed by measuring the sound pressure level and the acoustic absorption in the receiving room. Large variations of the sound pressure level in a reverberation room indicate the presence of dominating strong standing waves, so that it becomes necessary to install diffusing elements. In ISO 10140, the limits have been defined in which the reverberation time at frequencies at and above 100 Hz should be included. Sometimes, however, in the case of rooms with a large volume, obtaining the required parameters is difficult and sometimes even impossible. It should then be checked whether the measured sound insulation depends on the reverberation time. The paper presents the results of sound insulation measurements at various reverberation time lengths in subsequent stages of diffusing elements installation in the receiving room. An analysis of diffusing materials amount and arrangement influence on the uniformity of the sound pressure level distribution and reverberation time in the room as well as the value of the measured sound insulation was carried out. Uncertainty of sound insulation measurement with partial uncertainties was adopted as a criterion supporting the assessment of the obtained results.
Extensive efforts have been made for many years by the power generating industry to replace conventional solid and liquid insulation with synthetic materials. Those measures are aimed at increasing the load capacity, improved fire safety and extending transformer life during exploitation. Modern insulating materials include aramid fibre-based paper and insulating fluids made of synthetic and natural esters. The paper presents research results of the electrostatic charging tendency (ECT) of mixtures of fresh and aged mineral oil Trafo En with synthetic ester Midel 7131 and natural ester Midel 1204. The measurements were taken in a flow-through system using the pipes made of metal, cellulose and aramid paper. The influence of the liquid flow velocity, the type of material of the measuring pipe and the mixture content on the level of the streaming electrification current generation was determined.
The increment in the number of automobiles and the densification of the city has increased noise pollution rates. In addition, the lack of regulation in Chile regarding the acoustic insulation of façades is a problem of a growing concern. The main objective of the present study was to obtain a model of the Sound Insulation of housing, façades, stratified in Santiago, Chile, based on constructive variables. It is expected to serve as a basis for one future regulation for acoustic façades of houses. In the present study, tests based on the international ISO 140-5 standard were carried out in situ. An estimation model of the Standardized Level Difference Dls,2m,nT,w + C, was obtained based on the opening/façade proportion, and the type of glass used for the windows.
The main purpose of the presented research is to investigate the partial discharge (PD) phenomenon variability under long-term AC voltage with particular consideration of the selected physical quantities changes while measured and registered by the acoustic emission method (AE). During the research a PD model source generating surface discharges is immersed in the brand new insulation mineral oil. Acoustic signals generated by the continuously occurred PDs within 168 hours are registered. Several qualitative and quantitative indicators are assigned to describe the PD variability in time. Furthermore, some longterm characteristics of the applied PD model source in mineral oil, are also presented according to acoustic signals emitted by the PD. Finally, various statistical tools are applied for the results analysis and presentation. Despite there are numerous contemporary research papers dealing with long-term PD analysis, such complementary and multiparametric approach has not been presented so far, regarding the presented research. According to the presented research from among all assigned indicators there are discriminated descriptors that could depend on PD long-term duration. On the grounds of the regression models analysis there are discovered trends that potentially allow to apply the results for modeling of the PD variability in time using the acoustic emission method. Subsequently such an approach may potentially support the development and extend the abilities of the diagnostic tools and maintenance policy in electrical power industry.
The locally resonant sonic material (LRSM) is an artificial metamaterial that can block underwater sound. The low-frequency insulation performance of LRSM can be enhanced by coupling local resonance and Bragg scattering effects. However, such method is hard to be experimentally proven as the best optimizing method. Hence, this paper proposes a statistical optimization method, which first finds a group of optimal solutions of an object function by utilizing genetic algorithm multiple times, and then analyzes the distribution of the fitness and the Euclidean distance of the obtained solutions, in order to verify whether the result is the global optimum. By using this method, we obtain the global optimal solution of the low-frequency insulation of LRSM. By varying parameters of the optimum, it can be found that the optimized insulation performance of the LRSM is contributed by the coupling of local resonance with Bragg scattering effect, as well as a distinct impedance mismatch between the matrix of LRSM and the surrounding water. This indicates coupling different effects with impedance mismatches is the best method to enhance the low-frequency insulation performance of LRSM.
Main aim of this study is to combine the characteristics of the sonic crystal (SC) with acoustic panels and porous materials to improve the sound transmission loss (STL) through the triple-panel structure. SCs cause a bandgap centered around a certain frequency (Bragg’s frequency) due to generation of destructive interference. Initially, an analytical method is developed that extends the previous theory of double-panel structure to predict STL through a triple-panel structure. Finite element (FE) simulations are performed to obtain the STL through the triple-panel, which are validated with the analytical predictions. Various configurations are analyzed using the FE method based on the method of inserting the porous material and SCs between the panels to address the combined effect. STL through the triple-panel structure is compared with that through the double-panel structure having the same total weight and total thickness. It is found that the combined structure of the triple panel and the SC with glass wool as filler gives the best soundproof performance for the same external dimensions. For narrow air gaps, filing with glass wool is more advantageous than inserting one row of SC. In addition, the triple panel combined with a SC has better soundproofing than the two-panel counterparts.
This paper presents the spatial distribution of changes in the value of the predicted insulation index of clothing (Iclp) in the Norwegian Arctic for the period 1971-2000. For this study, data from six meteorological stations were used: Ny-Alesund, Svalbard Airport, Hornsund, Hopen, Bjřrnřya and Jan Mayen. The impact on the atmospheric circulation to the course of the Iclp index was analyzed using the catalogue of circulation types by Niedźwiedź (1993, 2002), the circulation index according to Murray and Lewis (1966) modified by Niedźwiedź (2001), the North Atlantic Oscillation Index according to Luterbacher et al. (1999, 2002), and the Arctic Oscillation Index (Thompson and Wallace 1998).
The new legislative provisions, regulating the trade in solid fuels in our country, draw attention to the need to develop and improve methods and methods of managing hard coal sludge. The aim of the work was to show whether filtration parameters (mainly the permeability coefficient) of hard coal sludge are sufficient for construction of insulating layers in landfills at the stage of their closing and what is the demand for material in the case of such a procedure. The analysis was carried out for landfills for municipal waste in the Opolskie, Śląskie and Małopolskie provinces. For hard coal sludge, the permeability coefficient values are in the range of 10–8–10–11 m/s, with the average value of 3.16 × 10–9 m/s. It can be concluded that this material generally meets the criteria of tightness for horizontal and often vertical flows. When compaction, increasing load or mixing with fly ash from hard coal combustion and clays, the achieved permeability coefficient often lowers its values. Based on the analysis, it can be assumed that hard coal sludge can be used to build mineral insulating barriers. At the end of 2016, 50 municipal landfills were open in the Opolskie, Śląskie and Małopolskie Provinces. Only 36 of them have obtained the status of a regional installation, close to 1/3 of the municipal landfill are within the Major Groundwater Basin (MGB) range. The remaining storage sites will be designated for closure. Assuming the necessity to close all currently active municipal waste landfills, the demand for hard coal sludge amounts to a total of 1,779,000 m3 which, given the assumptions, gives a mass of 2,704,080 Mg. The total amount of hard coal sludge production is very high in Poland. Only two basic mining groups annually produce a total of about 1,500,000 Mg of coal sludge. The construction of insulating layers in landfills of inert, hazardous and non-hazardous and inert wastes is an interesting solution. Such an application is prospective, but it will not solve the problem related to the production and management of this waste material as a whole. It is important to look for further solutions.
In the process of extraction and enrichment of coal waste, considerable quantities of waste material are produced, mainly the gangue and coal sludge, considered as waste or raw material. The main directions of the management development of the waste rock are the production of aggregates, the production of energy products and the liquidation works in hard coal mines and the filling of excavations. The paper proposes the extension of these activities to the use of waste material. The possibility of using aggregates or extractive waste to fill open-pit excavations has been proposed, also in areas within the reach of groundwater and the possibility of building insulation layers of waste material and the production of mixtures of hard coal sludge and sewage sludge to produce material with good energy properties. The analysis was based on the author’s own research and literature data related to selected parameters of waste material. This paper presents our own preliminary studies on the amount of combustion heat and the calorific value of coal sludge combined with other wastes such as sewage sludge. The proposed methods and actions are part of the current directions of development, but they allow the extension of the scope of use of both extractive waste and products produced on the basis of gangue or coal sludge. Due to the frequent lack of the stable composition of these materials, their current properties should be assessed each time before attempting to use them. The fact that it is important to continue research to promote existing economic use and to seek new activities or methods has been concluded.