The results presented in this article are part of the research on fatigue life of various foundry alloys carried out in recent years in the Lukasiewicz Research Network – Institute of Precision Mechanics and AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Foundry Engineering. The article discusses the test results obtained for the EN-GJS-600-3 cast iron in an original modified low-cycle fatigue test (MLCF), which seems to be a beneficial research tool allowing its users to evaluate the mechanical properties of materials with microstructural heterogeneities under both static and dynamic loads. For a comprehensive analysis of the mechanical behaviour with a focus on fatigue life of alloys, an original modified low cycle fatigue method (MLCF) adapted to the actually available test machine was used. The results of metallographic examinations carried out by light microscopy were also presented. From the analysis of the results of the conducted mechanical tests and structural examinations it follows that the MLCF method is fully applicable in a quick and economically justified assessment of the quality of ductile iron after normalizing treatment.
This paper presents matters related to production of ceramic and cast iron composite. The composite was made with the use of a foam structured ceramic insert. The tests included measuring of hardness, impact strength and resistance to abrasive wear of the composite produced. On the basis of obtaining results was stated that the use of foamed ceramic filters provides good conditions of filling a ceramic framework with molten grey or chromium cast iron. The growth of hardness of the ceramic- grey cast iron composite is ca. 60% as compared to the grey cast iron hardness. The growth of hardness of the ceramic- chromium cast iron composite is slight and does not exceed 5 % in comparison to the chromium cast iron. Introduction of the ceramic inserts deteriorates the cast iron impact strength by ca. 20 - 30 %. The use of ceramic inserts increases the resistance to abrasive wear in case of grey cast iron by ca. 13% and in case of the chromium cast iron by ca. 10 %.
An analysis has been carried out of the influence of annealing time at the preheating temperature of 650 °C on the change in hardness and alloy structure of lamellar graphite cast iron in the working as well as in the laboratory conditions. This preheat temperature is common during reclaiming welding of castings with complex shapes. The changes in unalloyed cast iron EN-GJL 200 to EN-GJL 300 according to ISO 1690 standard and cast iron with low amount of elements such as Sn, Cu, Cr, and Mo and their combinations were assessed. It was found that the cast iron of higher strength grades has better hardness and structural stability. Cast iron alloyed with chromium or its combinations has the highest stability. In unalloyed cast iron, a partial degradation of pearlite occurs; in alloyed cast iron the structural changes are not conclusive.
The paper presents the initial results of investigation concerning the abrasion resistance of cast iron with nodular, vermicular, or flake graphite. The nodular and vermicular cast iron specimens were cut out of test coupons of the IIb type with the wall thickness equal to 25 mm, while the specimens made of grey cast iron containing flake graphite were cut out either of special casts with 20 mm thick walls or of the original brake disk. The abrasion tests were carried out by means of the T-01M tribological unit working in the pin-on-disk configuration. The counterface specimens (i.e. the disks) were made of the JT6500 brand name friction material. Each specimen was abraded over a distance of 4000 m. The mass losses, both of the specimens and of the counterface disks, were determined by weighting. It was found that the least wear among the examined materials was exhibited by the nodular cast iron. In turn, the smallest abrasion resistance was found in vermicular cast iron and in cast iron containing flake graphite coming from the brake disk. However, while the three types of specimens (those taken from the nodular cast iron and from grey cast iron coming either from the special casts or from the brake disk) have almost purely pearlitic matrix (P95/Fe05), the vermicular cast iron matrix was composed of pearlite and ferrite occurring in the amounts of about 50% each (P50/Fe50). Additionally, it was found that the highest temperature at the cast iron/counterface disk contact point was reached during the tests held for the nodular cast iron, while the lowest one occurred for the case of specially cast grey iron.
The article presents results of pitting corrosion studies of selected silicon cast irons. The range of studies included low, medium and high silicon cast iron. The amount of alloying addition (Si) in examined cast irons was between 5 to 25 %. Experimental melts of silicon cast irons [1-3] were conducted in Department of Foundry of Silesian University of Technology in Gliwice and pitting corrosion resistance tests were performed in Faculty of Biomedical Engineering in Department of Biomaterials and Medical Devices Engineering of Silesian University of Technology in Zabrze. In tests of corrosion resistance the potentiostat VoltaLab PGP201 was used. Results obtained in those research complement the knowledge about the corrosion resistance of iron alloys with carbon containing Si alloying addition above 17 % [4-6]. Obtained results were supplemented with metallographic examinations using scanning electron microscopy. The analysis of chemical composition for cast irons using Leco spectrometer was done and the content of alloying element (silicon) was also determined using the gravimetric method in the laboratory of the Institute of Welding in Gliwice. The compounds of microstructure were identify by X-ray diffraction.
The paper presents the issue of synthetic cast iron production in the electric induction furnace exclusively on the steel scrap base. Silicon carbide and synthetic graphite were used as carburizers. The carburizers were introduced with solid charge or added on the liquid metal surface. The chemical analysis of the produced cast iron, the carburization efficiency and microstructure features were presented in the paper. It was stated that ferrosilicon can be replaced by silicon carbide during the synthetic cast iron melting process. However, due to its chemical composition (30% C and 70% Si) which causes significant silicon content in iron increase, the carbon deficit can be partly compensated by the carburizer introduction. Moreover it was shown that the best carbon and silicon assimilation rate is obtained where the silicon carbide is being introduced together with solid charge. When it is thrown onto liquid alloy surface the efficiency of the process is almost two times less and the melting process lasts dozen minutes long. The microstructure of the cast iron produced with the silicon carbide shows more bulky graphite flakes than inside the microstructure of cast iron produced on the pig iron base.
The results of studies on the use of magnesium alloy in modern Tundish for production of vermicular graphite cast irons were described. This paper describes the results of using a low-magnesium ferrosilicon alloy for the production of vermicular graphite cast irons. The paper presents a vermicular (and nodular) graphite in different walled castings. The results of trials have shown that the magnesium Tundish process can produce high quality vermicular graphite irons under the specific industrial conditions of Foundries - Odlewnie Polskie S.A. in Starachowice. In this work describes too preliminary studies on the oxygen state in cast iron and their effect on graphite crystallization.
The objective of the study reported in this paper was to determine the effect of structure on thermal power of cast-iron heat exchangers which in this case were furnace chambers constituting the main component of household fireplace-based heating systems and known commonly as fireplace inserts. For the purpose of relevant tests, plate-shaped castings were prepared of gray iron with flake graphite in pearlitic matrix (the material used to date typically for fireplace inserts) as well as similar castings of gray cast iron with vermicular graphite in pearlitic, ferritic-pearlitic, and ferritic matrix. For all the cast iron variants of different structures (graphite precipitate shapes and matrix type), calorimetric measurements were carried out consisting in determining the heat power which is quantity representing the rate of heat transfer to the ambient environment. It has been found that the value of the observed heat power was affected by both the shape of graphite precipitates and the type of alloy matrix. Higher thermal power values characterize plate castings of gray iron with vermicular graphite compared to plates cast of the flake graphite gray iron. In case of plates made of gray cast iron with vermicular graphite, the highest values of thermal power were observed for castings made of iron with ferritic matrix.
The paper presents the effect of manganese on the crystallization process, microstructure and selected properties: cast iron hardness as well as ferrite and pearlite microhardness. The compacted graphite was obtained by Inmold technology. The lack of significant effect on the temperature of the eutectic transformation was demonstrated. On the other hand, a significant reduction in the eutectoid transformation temperature with increasing manganese concentration has been shown. The effect of manganese on microstructure of cast iron with compacted graphite considering casting wall thickness was investigated and described. The nomograms describing the microstructure of compacted graphite iron versus manganese concentration were developed. The effect of manganese on the hardness of cast iron and microhardness of ferrite and pearlite were given.
Group of steel balls with different chemical composition, diameters and nitriding treatment parameters were investigated with using magnetic resonance and magnetization methods. Emerging nitrided regions consists of diffusion and surface layer of iron nitrides. The thickness of the individual layers depends on the type of steel and process parameters. Resonance signal shape and position were successfully described in the ferromagnetic resonance regime expected for dense iron magnetic system. Influence of the sample size, thermal treatment and carbon content on the absorption signal has been analyzed. Significant magnetic anisotropy has been revealed, as well as non-usual increasing of the magnetization as a function of temperature. It suggests, that overall antiferromagnetic ordering, destroyed by thermal movement, lead to increasing of the ferromagnetic region.
The combination of the austempered ductile iron mechanical properties strongly depend on the parameters used on the austempering cycle. On this study, the influence of austempering time and austenitizing temperature on the properties of a ductile iron were evaluated. A metallic bath of Zamak at 380°C was used as an austempering mean. A set of ductile iron blocks were austenitized at 900°C for 90 minutes and submitted to different austempering times in order to determine the best combination of microstructural and mechanical properties. After the definition of the time of austempering, the reduction of the austenitizing temperature was evaluated. The best combination of properties was obtained with austenitizing at 860°C and austempering during 60 minutes.
Magnetic properties of Fe nanowire arrays (NWs) electrodeposited in anodic alumina membranes have been studied. The influence of nanowire geometry (length, pore diameter) and an external magnetic field applied during electrodeposition process on the magnetic properties of nanowire arrays was investigated. With the use of the X-ray diffraction analysis the structure of iron wires was determined. The iron wires have the regular Body Centered Cubic structure. Magnetic measurements show that shape anisotropy aligns the preferential magnetization axis along the wire axis. It was found that the application of an external magnetic field in a parallel direction to the sample surface induces magnetic anisotropy with an easy axis of magnetization following the nanowire axis. The dependence of the height of Fe wires on the electrodeposition time was determined.
In this study, a preliminary evaluation was made of the applicability ofthe signalsof the cutting forces, vibration and acoustic emission in diagnosis of the hardness and microstructure of ausferritic ductile iron and tool edge wear rate during its machining. Tests were performed on pearlitic-ferritic ductile iron and on three types of ausferritic ductile iron obtained by austempering at 400, 370 and 320⁰C for 180 minutes. Signals of the cutting forces (F), vibration (V) and acoustic emission (AE) were registered while milling each type of the cast iron with a milling cutter at different degrees of wear. Based on individual signals from all the sensors, numerous measures were determined such as e.g. the average or maximum signal value. It was found that different measures from all the sensors tested depended on the microstructure and hardness of the examined material, and on the tool condition. Knowing hardness of the material and the cutting tool edge condition, it is possible to determine the structure of the material .Simultaneous diagnosis of microstructure, hardness, and the tool condition is probably feasible, but it would require the application of a diagnostic strategy based on the integration of numerous measures, e.g. using neural networks.
The work determined the influence of aluminium in the amount from about 0.6% to about 8% on graphitization of cast iron with relatively high silicon content (3.4%-3.9%) and low manganese content (about 0.1%). The cast iron was spheroidized with cerium mixture and graphitized with ferrosilicon. It was found that the degree of graphitization increases with an increase in aluminium content in cast iron up to 2.8%, then decreases. Nodular and vermicular graphite precipitates were found after the applied treatment in cast iron containing aluminium in the amount from about 1.9% to about 8%. The Fe3AlCx carbides, increasing brittleness and deteriorating the machinability of cast iron, were not found in cast iron containing up to about 6.8% Al. These carbides were revealed only in cast iron containing about 8% Al.
An initial assessment of the effectiveness of cast iron inoculation, performed by the method of impulse introducing the master alloy into cast iron, is presented. The experiment was concerned with the hypoeutectic gray cast iron inoculated with either the Alinoc or the Barinoc master alloy by means of an experimental device for pneumatic transportation. Examinations involved pneumatic injection of the powdered inoculant carried in a stream of gaseous medium (argon) into the metal bath held in the crucible of an induction furnace. It was found that the examined process is characterised by both high effectiveness and stability.
The influence of aluminium (added in quantity from about 0.6% to about 2.8%) on both the alloy matrix and the shape of graphite precipitates in cast iron treated with a fixed amounts of cerium mischmetal (0.11%) and ferrosilicon (1.29%) is discussed in the paper. The metallographic examinations were carried out for specimens cut out of the separately cast rods of 20 mm diameter. It was found that the addition of aluminium in the amounts from about 0.6% to about 1.1% to the cast iron containing about 3% of carbon, about 3.7% of silicon (after graphitizing modification), and 0.1% of manganese leads to the occurrence of the ferrite-pearlite matrix containing cementite precipitates in the case of the treatment of the alloy with cerium mischmetal . The increase in the quantity of aluminium up to about 1.9% or up to about 2.8% results either in purely ferrite matrix in this first case or in ferrite matrix containing small amounts of pearlite in the latter one. Nodular graphite precipitates occurred only in cast iron containing 1.9% or 2.8% of aluminium, and the greater aluminium content resulted in the higher degree of graphite spheroidization. The noticeable amount of vermicular graphite precipitates accompanied the nodular graphite.
Compacted graphite iron, also known as vermicular cast iron or semiductile cast iron is a modern material, the production of which is increasing globaly. Recently this material has been very often used in automotive industry. This paper reviews some findigs gained during the development of the manufacturing technology of compacted graphite iron under the conditions in Slévárna Heunisch Brno, Ltd. The new technology assumes usage of cupola furnace for melting and is beeing developed for production of castings weighing up to 300 kilograms poured into bentonite sand moulds.
The influence of a shape of graphite precipitates in cast iron on the thermal shock resistance of the alloy was initially determined. Investigations included the nodular cast iron and the vermicular one, as well as the cast iron containing flake graphite. The thermal shock resistance was examined at a special laboratory stand which allowed for multiple heating and cooling of specimens within the presumed temperature range. The specimens were inductively heated and then cooled in water of constant temperature of about 30°C. There were used flat specimens 70 mm long, 5 mm thick in the middle part, and tapering like a wedge over a distance of 15 mm towards both ends. The total length of cracks generated on the test surfaces of the wedge-shaped parts of specimens was measured as a characteristic value inversely proportional to the thermal shock resistance of a material. The specimens heated up to 500°C were subjected to 2000 test cycles of alternate heating and cooling, while the specimens heated up to 600°C underwent 1000 such cycles. It was found that as the heating temperature rose within the 500-600°C range, the thermal shock resistance decreased for all examined types of cast iron. The research study proved that the nodular cast iron exhibited the best thermal shock resistance, the vermicular cast iron got somewhat lower results, while the lowest thermal shock resistance was exhibited by grey cast iron containing flake graphite.
The paper concerns the processes connected with the formation of chromium white cast iron microstructure. The influence of titanium and strontium on the alloy crystallization has been described using TDA method and EDS analysis. Conducted experiments allowed the determination of the selected additions influence on the microstructure of examined alloys. TDA analysis enabled indication of the characteristic temperatures of thermal effects for samples with strontium and titanium and the comparison of results for the reference sample without additions. The results of TDA test also included the analysis of the temperature first derivative values, which presented interesting differences as well. The scanning microscopy observation clearly indicated the difference between the effect of strontium and titanium on the alloy microstructure. The EDS analysis helped to identify the chemical composition of the evolving phases and confirmed the strontium presence in the eutectic. Experimental results allowed to draw reliable conclusions about the effect of applied additions on the crystallization and microstructure of chromium cast iron.
Austenitization is the first step of heat treatment preceding the isothermal quenching of ductile iron in austempered ductile iron (ADI) manufacturing. Usually, the starting material for the ADI production is ductile iron with more convenient pearlitic matrix. In this paper we present the results of research concerning the austenitizing of ductile iron with ferritic matrix, where all carbon dissolved in austenite must come from graphite nodules. The scope of research includedcarrying out the process of austenitization at 900o Cusing a variable times ranging from 5 to 240minutes,and then observations of the microstructure of the samples after different austenitizing times. These were supplemented with micro-hardness testing. The research showed that the process of saturating austenite with carbon is limited by the rate of dissolution of carbon from nodular graphite precipitates.
A cast iron is gradient material. This means that depending on the cooling rate it is possible, at the same chemical composition and the physicochemical state of molten metal, to obtain material with a different structure. The connection between the wall thickness of the casting and the speed of its cooling expresses the casting module. Along with the module escalation a cooling rate of the casting is reducing what can cause changes of the microstructure and the increased tendency to the crystallization of distorted graphite forms. Inspections of experimental castings from nodular cast iron with different modules were conducted to the graphite form.
Copper slag is a by-product obtained during smelting and refining of copper. Copper smelting slag typically contains about 1 wt.% copper and 40 wt.% iron depending upon the initial ore quality and the furnace type. Main components of copper slag are iron oxide and silica. These exist in copper slag mainly in the form of fayalite (2FeO ·SiO2). This study was intended to recover pig iron from the copper smelting slag by reduction smelting method. At the reaction temperature of below 1400°С the whole copper smelting slag was not smelted, and some agglomerated, showing a mass in a sponge form. The recovery behavior of pig iron from copper smelting slag increases with increasing smelting temperature and duration. The recovery rate of pig iron varied greatly depending on the reaction temperature.
The paper presents selected granular ceramic materials available on the Polish market. Their characteristics have been determined in the aspect on application in the production of iron alloy-ceramic composite. The possibility of obtaining a composite layer by means of bulk grains in molds of plates were considered, which was the foundation for experimental molds to be used in service tests. On the basis of obtaining results was stated that the knowledge of the characteristics of bulk grains enables the calculation of their quantity necessary for the composite production. When using the bulk grains the thickness of the composite layer is restricted by the thermal relations (cooler) and the physical phenomena (buoyancy, metal static pressure). Increasing amount of grains above definite condition causes surface defects in the castings. Each casting, due to its weight, shape and place of composite layer production requires an individual approach, both at the stage of formation and that of calculation of the required quantity of ceramic grains.
The present paper is a presentation of results of a study on morphology, chemical composition, material properties (HVIT, HIT, EIT), and nanoindentation elastic and plastic work for carbide precipitates in chromium cast iron containing 24% Cr. It has been found that the carbides differ in chemical composition, as well as in morphology and values characterizing their material properties. The carbides containing the most chromium which had the shape of thick and long needles were characterized with highest values of the analyzed material properties.
The publication presents the results of examination of selected carburizers used for cast iron production with respect to their electric resistance. Both the synthetic graphite carburizers and petroleum coke (petcoke) carburizers of various chemical composition were compared. The relationships between electrical resistance of tested carburizers and their quality were found. The graphite carburizers exhibited much better conductivity than the petcoke ones. Resistance characteristics were different for the different types of carburizers. The measurements were performed according to the authors’ own method based on recording the electric current flow through the compressed samples. The samples of the specified diameter were put under pressure of the gradually increased value (10, 20, 50, 60, and finally 70 bar), each time the corresponding value of electric resistance being measured with a gauge of high accuracy, equal to 0.1μΩ. The higher pressure values resulted in the lower values of resistance. The relation between both the thermal conductance and the electrical conductance (or the resistance) is well known and mentioned in the professional literature. The results were analysed and presented both in tabular and, additionally, in graphic form.