Studium niniejsze przynosi rozbudowaną i bardziej szczegółową prezentację moich argumentów przeciwko turkijskiej etymologii słowiańskiej nazwy barana, które po raz pierwszy ukazały się w artykule Stachowski 2005. Etymologia ta została w dwóch odmiennych postaciach stworzona w Rosji (Dmitriev 1958; Trubačev 1960) – obie są błędne, ale każda w inny sposób. Choć żadna z nich nie zdominowała wszystkich słowiańskich słowników etymologicznych, pojawiają się one jednak naprzemiennie w opiniotwórczych publikacjach slawistycznych, toteż pokazanie ich słabości wydaje się być jak najbardziej pożądane.
Artykuł podejmuje polemikę z zarzutem naturalistycznego redukcjonizmu, którym rzekomo obciążona jest antropologia filozoficzna Arnolda Gehlena. W pierwszej części artykułu przeanalizuję zasadność zarzutu o redukcjonizm w kontekście rozważań Gehlena nad naturą człowieka, z kolei przedmiotem drugiej części będzie pojęcie natury jako obiektywnego świata, natomiast część trzecia i czwarta podejmą wątki dotyczące zagadnienia moralności (3) oraz kultury i ludzkiej świadomości (4) pod kątem zarzutu o rzekomy naturalizm jego projektu antropologicznego. Argumentuję, że antropologia Gehlena ma wprawdzie na celu zintegrowanie wyników badań nauk biologicznych i społecznych, jednakże wyprowadza z nich implikacje filozoficzne o takim poziomie ogólności, że wykraczają one poza kompetencje nauk szczegółowych. Ich ustalenia uzyskują w jego koncepcji uniwersalne znaczenie w ramach systemu filozoficznych kategorii opisujących człowieka jako całościowy projekt natury. Gehlen odrzuca wszelkie próby tworzenia ogólnej teorii człowieka na podstawie badań komparatystycznych wyprowadzających własności ludzkiej kondycji ze świata zwierzęcego. Gehlenowska antropobiologia rezygnuje z pojęcia natury człowieka w sensie biologicznym, tzn. jako zestawu ewolucyjnie zdeterminowanych cech morfologicznych, fizjologicznych i behawioralnych, porzuca również obiektywistyczne pojęcie „natury zewnętrznej” jako obszaru ontycznego niezawisłego od zapośredniczeń kulturowych. Język, świadomość, kultura stanowią efekt procesów kompensujących biologiczne deficyty, a jednocześnie reprezentują obszar kompetencji i wartości, które są autonomiczne i autoteliczne, a zatem całkowicie niezależne od biologicznych uwarunkowań.
The article shows folk nicknames operating in geographically diverse rural communities (administratively belonging to the municipality Muszyna). As unofficial anthroponyms, existing only in the spoken form, they represent a living local language — dialect. Analysis of the collected material shows that all the most important features of the language characteristic of this part of Lesser Poland (Małopolska) dialect are performed in it. Folk nicknames, despite numerous hazards caused by civilization, are still an important factor supporting the local dialect — they operate rather vividly in the ana lysed microcommunity (almost every adult has his nickname), and are constantly being created and passed down from generation to generation.
In the article the author discusses the practice associated with name-giving among the residents of Łódź (only Catholics of Polish origin) during the period from the beginning of the seventeenth century to the first half of the nineteenth century. The material was collected from official documents. Habits associated with the first names were treated as a kind of linguistic behaviour that implements a specific communication need of the given community. Observations of these habits show that they oscillate — like any linguistic behaviour — between automatism (and convention) and spontaneity. Conventional measures that should be considered: the use of a limited collection of names that indicate a high degree of stability in subsequent periods and against the background of habits of name-giving in the region and other territories of the former Poland (especially the most popular names of women, e.g. Marianna, Katarzyna, Agnieszka and names of men, e.g. Józef, Jan, Franciszek) and inheritance of names. In contrast, a large number of rare names (names of women, e.g. Idalia, Jokasta, Kasylda, and of men, e.g. Bonawentura, Wit, Witalis) and a visible preference in some families for the usage of rare names, e.g. Damazy, Feliks, Lubomira (including Slavic first names, e.g. Bolesław, Władysław, Bronisław) were included as spontaneous factors. Analysis of the material reveals a tendency to differentiate names depending on the social status of the inhabitants (the representatives of the noble families often used rare names). The author also draws attention to the problem of the diversity of names in Łódź (both in the context of different collections of names and different practices) depending on parameters such as the religion (Catholics, Protestants, Jews) and nationality (Poles, Germans, Czechs) of residents of the city.
The main goal of this article is to characterise and compare some aspects of Hilary Putnam’s referential theory of meaning and Robert B. Brandom’s inferential theory of meaning. I will do it to indicate some similarities and differences in these theories. It will provide an opportunity for a deeper understanding of these theories and for a more adequate evaluation of how they describe and explain the process of meaning acquisition of linguistic expressions. In his theory of meaning Putnam emphasises the importance of reference understood as a relationship which connects linguistic expressions and extra-linguistic (empirical) reality. Brandom acknowledges inference as a main category useful in characterising the meaning of expressions used in premises and a conclusion of inference. But his theory of meaning is criticised for minimalising the role of an empirical component (demonstratives etc.). He tries to defend his standpoint in the anaphoric theory of reference. Putnam like Brandom claimed that we – as cognitive subjects – are not in a situation in which we learn about the extra-linguistic reality in a direct way. It is the reality itself as well as our cognitive apparatus that play a role in a cognitive process.
The aim of this paper is to consider the not so well investigated problem of the role that language has played in Karl Marx’s thinking. The first section discusses several examples of Marxist attempts at philosophical or linguistic reflection on language. I propose the thesis that Marxist meaning theory did not seriously evolve due to the domination of the ‛Traditional Meaning Theory’ (TMT) – irrespective of the actual social conditions. In the second section I undertake some adumbrations on the tendencies of contemporary philosophy of language, such as externalism or pragmatism, whose premonitions can be found in Marx. I also point out that combined with historical materialism they can no longer fit TMT. Finally, I argue that the notion of language and the division of linguistic labor may solve some issues of Marx’s conception of ideology.
This paper is devoted to the surname changes performed through administrative channels in the interwar period. The research is based on the announcements of the “Official Gazette of the Republic of Poland” in 1929. The author describes main reasons for the decisions of surname changes taking into account characteristics of avoided surnames and chosen demographic tendencies, especially those connected with the age and profession of applicants. People of Jewish origin, Poles and representatives of other nationalities showed different motives for surname changes. Jews most frequently changed their surnames due to legal reasons — they wanted to legalize the unlawful use of a surname of the so-called ritual father. The changes carried out under the motive of assimilation occurred definitely less often. Non-Jewish applicants changed mainly appellative names, especially those derived from words related to animals. After comparing tendencies occurring before and after World War II one concludes that besides legal and assimilation factors which are particular to the pre-war decades (connected with the ethnic, legal and religious situation of the time), the remaining reasons for the surname changes are universal and do not distinguish the pre-war period from that of the post-war.
Artykuł charakteryzuje pismo „Moriah” wydawane we Lwowie w latach 1903–1924 jako miesięcznik młodzieży żydowskiej. Pismo ukazywało się w języku polskim i było trybuną środowiska syjonistycznego. „Moriah” zamieszczała teksty popularnonaukowe, głównie z zakresu historii i literatury żydowskiej oraz utwory literackie przedstawicieli literatury jidysz i hebrajskiej. Pismo realizowało model wychowania w duchu narodowo-żydowskim, ale przede wszystkim popularyzowało idee syjonizmu.
A village on the outskirts of a city. An analysis and assessment of the west part of Inowrocław for the purposes of spatial planning, The article presents results of a research concerning the landscape of the west part of Uzdrowisko Inowrocław which is characterized by a rural origin and physiognomy, despite being located in the city. The goal of the paper was to identify the resources of that landscape, determine the pace of its transformation, its value, and indicate the possible directions of development. The research consisted in a landscape diagnosis concerning physiognomy aspects in various dimensions (composition, panoramic, and planning), taking advantage of methods used in landscape architecture and urban design. The execution allowed to formulate guidelines concerning the protection and formation of the researched landscape. The goal was also to determine the usefulness of the used model of research proceedings in practice, including indicating the possibilities of implementing the identified results in spatial planning on a local scale. The work has a case study character which conclusions may be helpful in analyzing similar areas and their landscapes.
Marta Hirschprung (born in Cracow in 1903, died 1942?) was a journalist, translator, editor of the children’s magazine Okienko na Świat (A Little Window on the World) and author of countless articles for the press. This article is an attempt at finding out the forgotten facts from her life and reconstructing her biography. While analyzing her contributions to the Gazeta Żydowska (The Jewish Newspaper) in 1940–1942, special attention is paid to her editorial work on its children’s supplements Nasza Gazetka/Gazetka dla Dzieci i Młodzieży (Our Little Paper/The Little Paper for Children and the Young People, 1940–1941).
In this paper, we propose a new algorithm that improves the performance of the operation of Handover (HO) in LTE-Advanced (LTE-A) networks. As recognized, Mobility Management (MM) is an important pillar in LTE/LTE-A systems to provide high quality of service to users on the move. The handover algorithms define the method and the steps to follow to ensure a reliable transfer of the UEs from one cell to another without interruption or degradation of the services offered by the network. In this paper, the authors proposed a new handover algorithm for LTE/LTE-A networks based on the measurement and calculation of two important parameters, namely the available bandwidth and the Received Power (RSRP) at the level of eNodeBs. The proposed scheme named LTE Available Bandwidth and RSRP Based Handover Algorithm (LABRBHA) was tested in comparison with well-known algorithms in the literature as the LHHA, LHHAARC and the INTEGRATOR scheme using the open source simulator LTE-Sim. Finally, the network performances were investigated via three indicators: the number of lost packets during the handover operation, the latency as well as the maximum system throughput. The results reported that our algorithm shows remarkable improvements over other transfer schemes.
Współczesne sale koncertowe z widowniami powyżej 1800 osób, prezentują szereg innowacyjnych rozwiązań przestrzennych. Mimo niewątpliwej różnorodności rzutów, większość z nich bazuje na planie Filharmonii w Berlinie, którą otwarto w 1963 r. W związku z zaobserwowanymi podobieństwami i różnicami w omawianych wnętrzach, powstających na przestrzeni lat 70. XX w., po początek lat 2000, w niniejszym opracowaniu zaprezentowano autorską typologię sal koncertowych o tzw. układzie centralnym z tarasami.
Lacustrine deposits from Ortel Królewski II (Eastern Poland) represent the Holsteinian Interglacial (MIS 11c). They are characterized by an extremely rich occurrence of ostracod and mollusc fauna. Collected samples represent pre-optimal part of the Holsteinian Interglacial corresponding to Picea–Alnus, Taxus and Pinus–Larix zones. Based on ostracod assemblage analysis a depth of the paleolake, the energy of the environment and the average January and July air temperature were reconstructed. Ostracods from Ortel Królewski II indicate a lake with possible periodic overflow sur- rounded by periodically flooded grasslands, which existed in the study area during the pre-optimal part of Holsteinian Interglacial.
In 1979 54 water samples were collected at two oceanographic stations located in Admiralty Bay. Ranges of seasonal changes were found for the values of ten parameters: water temperature, salinity, dissolved О, pH, the contents of PO4 , Si, NO2, NO3, chlorophyll α and plant carotenoids at six depths between surface and 400 m. Data for temperature and salinity showed the absence of distinct thermoclines or haloelines which reflects the very low stability of waters in the Bay. The concentrations of nutrients were high during the entire year and they were not limiting for phytoplankton growth. Only nitrates decreased distinctly during algal blooms. The high dynamics of waters in the Bay causes a lowering in the chlorophyll α content to a maximum of about 2 mg/m3. Oceanographic, hydrochemical and hydrological conditions in Admiralty Bay are typical for the Antarctic shelf waters in this geographical region.
The aim of this paper is to present a new approach to the problem of silicon integrated spiral inductors modeling. First, an overview of models and modeling techniques is presented. Based on 3D simulations and published measurement results, a list of physical phenomena to be taken into account in the model is created and based on it, the spiral inductor modeling by frequency sampling method is presented. To verify the proposed method a test circuit, containing 6 spiral inductors was designed and integrated in a silicon technology. The parameters of the spiral inductors from the test circuit were next measured and compared with simulations results. The comparison for one of those six spiral inductors is presented in the article.
Flying bird counts were carried out at Esperanza Bay (62°24'S, 56°59'W), Antarctic Peninsula, between November 1989 and February 1990. Six breeding species (Oceanites oceanicus, Chionis alba, Catharacta lonnbergi, Catharacta maccormicki, Larus dominicanus and Sterna vittata) and six visitor species (Macronectes giganteus, Fulmarus glacialoides, Daption capense, Pagodroma nivea, Fregetta tropica and Phalacrocorax atriceps) were recorded. Kelp gull and Antarctic tern populations have decreased in relation to the data by previous authors, perhaps as a result of the increased activity at Esperanza Station. Cygnus melanocoryphus was recorded for the first time at Esperanza Bay.
After several years of research, the foraminiferal fauna of Admiralty Bay (King George Island, South Shetland Islands) has become themost studied fiord in West Antarctica with respect to foraminifera. As such, it provides actualistic data for better understanding of paleoenvironmental records from this dynamically changing area. Over a few years, the bay was systematically sampled down to 520 m water depth, for multi−chambered and mono− thalamous benthic foraminifera, including soft−walled allogromiids often overlooked in for− mer studies. Altogether, 138 taxa were identified, and three new taxa described. This paper aims to integrate these results, put them into a broader perspective, and supplement them with information that was not presented to date. Most notably, a record of the vertical distribution of Rose Bengal stained foraminifera below the sediment surface and the proportions of soft and robustly−testate forms at different sites are described.
At the turn of October 1985, the abundance of breeding Adelie penguins was estimated at the Hope Bay oasis on the Antarctic Peninsula and on Seymour Island. In the Hope Bay rookery, 123850 pairs of penguins were recorded, beginning their breeding at the end of October. Data so far obtained indicate a continuous increase in the number of birds sat this rookery. On the other hand, the Seymour Island colony consisted of 21954 pairs of Adélie penguins. Clear differences in the geomorphological structure of areas occupied by penguins in those two places are discussed. No gentoo penguins were detected in either of the colonies.
Pinnipeds were monitored in Admiralty Bay between 1988 and 1992. No particular trends during this period were found, but seasonal changes in each are distinct. It is suggested that the phenology of pinnipeds and that of penguins ensures low competition for food between these groups.
Meteorological conditions at Arctowski Station during 2013–2017 were presented against the background of regional climate changes, especially air temperature decline. Air temperature, relative air humidity, air pressure, solar radiation, wind speed and direction, snow cover and precipitation were collected with an automatic weather station and manual measurements and were further analysed. The obtained results were compared with data from previous years and with data from other stations located on King George Island. Our observations confirm that the vicinity of Arctowski Station experienced a decrease in air temperature during summer, which supports the hypothesis of regional cooling.
Cumacean crustaceans found in 188 qualitative and quantitative samples of zoobenthos collected in Admiralty Bay (King George Island, South Shetlands) by successive Polish Antarctic Expeditions in the years 1977 — 1989 were studied. In over 3000 individuals of these crustaceans 12 taxa were recognized. Eudorella splendida clearly dominated the material. Other common species were Campylaspis maculata and Vaunthompsonia inermis. The highest cumacean density amounted to 2618 ind.m-2 . Clear differences were observed between cumacean faunas of small grain sediment (muddy Ezcurra Inlet) and of mixed, coarser sediments (central part of Admiralty Bay with sand, gravel and mud). The dominance of Eudorella splendida was strongly marked in shallow Ezcurra Inlet whereas in deeper central part of Admiralty Bay the cumacean fauna was much more diversifield.
Net phytoplankton cell numbers in 50 m water column of Admiralty Bay ranged between 0.2 x 10 5 x m-2 on 24 August 1990 and 2.3 x 10 7 x m-2 on 15 November 1990. Cluster analysis has confirmed the presence of two groups of samples: spring and summer ones (October to April), rich in cells and in species, and, on the other hand, winter samples (June to August) impoverished in algae. Spring and summer fluctuations of diatoms were mainly due to Corethron criophilum, Rhizosolenia alata and its varieties, R. hebetata f. semispina, Thalassiosira spp., Chaetoceros spp., and Nitzschia spp. (Fragilariopsis and Pseudonitzschia groups). The abundance and succession of species in Admiralty Bay reflect seasonal differences in diatom growth; they also reflect mixed populations of the Weddell and Bellingshausen seas entering Admiralty Bay via Bransfield Strait. Striking poverty of algae in some summer samples can most likely be attributed to zooplankton grazing.