Formerly reported as maritime Antarctic Bacidia sp. A has been re-named here as B. chrysocolla Olech, Czarnota et Llop. Another new species, B. subcoprodes Olech et Czarnota, found in the continental and maritime Antarctic has also been described here. A placement of both taxa within Bacidia De Not. is probably tentative because they are not congeneric with the type of this genus, B. rosella (Pers.) De Not. Similarities to other Bacidia with Laurocerasi-brown hypothecium and mostly 3-septate ascospores are discussed.
A new species of lichenized ascomycete, Massalongia olechiana Alstrup et Søchting, sp. nov. (Massalongiaceae) is described from the South Shetland Islands and the Antarctic Peninsula. The species is distinguished by laminal isidia and 5–7−septate ascospores. The relationships with the other species of the genus are discussed. From Massalongia carnosa , recorded from both the Arctic and the Antarctic, the new species is distinguished by its lack of isidioid squamules and in having pluriseptate ascospores instead of 1−septate ascospores
The present contribution to lichen−forming and lichenicolous biota of northern− most Billefjörden (Petuniabukta area, central Spitsbergen, Svalbard) contains 40 species of lichens. Four species: Arthonia ligniariella, Candelariella lutella, Ochrolechia upsaliensis, Polyblastia pernigrata are new for the Svalbard Archipelago.
Lichens, as typical obligate associations between lichenized fungi and their photosynthetic partners, are dominant in Antarctica. Three Antarctic lichens, Ochrolechia frigida , Umbilicaria antarctica , and Usnea aurantiaco−atra with different growth forms, were sampled nearby the Great Wall Station, King George Island. Molecular data revealed that the photosynthetic algae in these three lichens were Trebouxia jamesii . The net photo − synthesis (Pn) of three individuals from these species, together with environmental factors such as light and temperature, were recorded by CO 2 gas exchange measurements using a CI−340 portable photosynthetic system in situ . Differences between T(leaf) (the temperature of the thalli) and T(air) (the air temperature) for these lichens were not consistent, which reflected that environment and the growth form of thalli could affect T(leaf) significantly. Strong irradiation was expected to have adverse effects on Pn of Ochrolechia frigida and Umbilicaria antarctica whose thalli spread flat; but this photoinhibition had little effect on Usnea aurantiaco−atra with exuberant tufted thallus. These results indicated that photo − synthetic activity in lichens was affected by the growth forms of thalli besides microhabitat factors. One species of lichenized alga could exhibit diversified types of photosynthetic behavior when it was associated with various lichenized fungi in different microhabitats. It will be helpful for understanding how lichens are able to adapt to and colonize in extreme environments.
The rapidly changing Arctic provides excellent opportunities for investigating primary succession on freshly deglaciated areas. Research on the Gåsbreen foreland (S Spitsbergen) traced the succession of particular groups of organisms and species, particularly lichens and bryophytes, and determined the effect of selected abiotic factors on this succession. Fieldwork in 2008, employed a continuous linear transect of phytosociological relevés (1 m2) along the foreland. Data analysis allowed to distinguish five different succession stages and three types of colonisers. Canonical correspondence analysis and a permutation test showed that distance from the front of the glacier and fine grain material in the substrate mostly influenced the distribution and abundance of vegetation, and the steepness of the moraine hills affected the colonisation process, mainly in the older part of the marginal zone.
Zinc concentrations in apices [Zn 2+]apex of the lichens, Cladonia arbuscula and C. rangiferina were determined along transects through two sub-Arctic towns in the Usa River Basin, northeast European Russia. One transect, which was 130 km long running in an east-west direction, passed through the town of Vorkuta and the other transect, which was 240 km long running in a southwest-northeast direction, passed through Inta. Zinc accumulation in lichens, which was detected 25-40 km within the vicinity of Vorkuta, was largely attributed to local emissions of alkaline coal ash from coal combustion. The present results using C. arbuscula around Vorkuta are consistent with those of previous studies suggesting that this lichen is a useful bioindicator for trace metals. There was no such elevation of [Zn 2+]apex detected in C. rangiferina along the transect running through Inta.
The present paper contains a list of 104 taxa of lichens and lichenicolous fungi, found in the Cape Lions Rump, Site of Special Scientific Interest No. 34 (King George Island, Antarctica), with their distribution and ecological analysis. A provisional vegetation map of the area is also provided. During the field survey the data were collected using the cartogram method in a grid of squares 250 x 250 m. The current abundance and spatial distribution of lichen species provides baseline data for long-term monitoring biological changes.
Usnea aurantiaco-atra is the dominant flora around King George Island, Antarctica, whose specimens exhibited various phenotypes, even for those with the same ITS sequences in both mycobiont and photobiont. A comprehensive analysis of morphological traits of U. aurantiaco-atra including the reproductive structures, growth forms and ornamentation, cross section of the branches, and the substratum was carried out. Four arbitrary groups were identified based on their reproductive characters, but these groups cannot be distinguished from molecular phylogenetic trees based on fungal or algal ITS sequences. Further, the complicated morphological diversity of the thalli with the same ITS haplotypes in both mycobiont and photobiont suggest that some other factors in addition to the symbionts could influence the morphology of lichens. This implies that lichen is indeed a complex-mini-ecosystem rather than a dual symbiotic association of fungus and alga. Also, a lichenous fungi Phacopsis sp. was identified based on its anatomical characters and ITS sequence, which was also responsible for the black burls-like structures on U. aurantiaco-atra.
Vegetation was described in various spatial scales in the area of 37.8 km 2 including distinguishing vegetation units, vegetation mapping, recording phytosociological relevés (53), and completing species lists of vascular plants (86), mosses (124) and lichens (40). Phytosociological relevés were elaborated using ordination methods DCA and CCA. The relevés formed clusters corresponding well to a priori assigned vegetation units. Slope and stoniness significantly influenced the vegetation pattern. Despite the high latitude (nearly 80 ° N), the vegetation is rather rich in species. Non−native species do not expand. The moss Bryum dichotomum is reported for the first time from Svalbard archipelago.
Antarctic plants experience UV−B stress and for their survival they have been showing various adaptive strategies. The first line of defence is to screen UV−B radiation before it reaches the cell, then to minimize damage within the cells through other protective strategies, and finally to repair damage once it has occurred. A fifteen days experiment was designed to study lichen: Dermatocarpon sp. and Acarospora gwynnii under natural UV and below UV filter frames in the Indian Antarctic Station Maitri region of Schirmacher Oasis, East Antarctica. Changes in UV absorbing compounds, total phenolics, total carotenoids and chlorophyll content were studied. The change in total phenolics and total carotenoid content was significant in both Dermatocarpon sp. and A. gwynnii indicating that the increase in UV absorbing compounds, total phenolics and total carotenoid content act as a protective mechanism against the deleterious effect of UV−B radiations, whereas the change in chlorophyll content was not significant in both lichen species.
This paper refers to lichen biota growing on driftwood in the Kaffi ø yra Plain (NW Spitsbergen, Svalbard). The presented list of 25 lichenized fungi includes both the eurytopic, accidental, typical, and stenotopic species. Taxa that belong to the last two groups can be considered as lignicolous. This study confirms the existence of a specific group of lichen species, for which the driftwood is a main substrate in the Arctic. Additionally, five lichen species new for the whole Svalbard were recorded, namely: Candelariella coralliza , Elixia flexella , Lecanora saligna , Lecidea plebeja , and Xylographa sibirica .
A lichenicolous fungus, Dactylospora dobrowolskii Olech et Alstrup, new to science is described. The paper reports on 9 species of lichens and lichenicolous fungi collected in the Bunger Oasis (East Antarctica).
The paper describes anatomical and physiological features of photobionts and mycobionts in Bryoria forsteri Olech & Bystrek, Caloplaca regalis (Vain.) Zahlbr., Cetraria aculeata (Schreb.) Fr., Ramalina terebrata Hook f. & Taylor, Sphaerophorus globosus (Huds.) Vain. and Usnea antarctica Du Rietz, collected in the Antarctic under varied weather conditions. Green algae from the genera Lobosphaera and Trebouxia were gathered in depressions of the cortex under the more resistant mycobiont hyphae. In photobiont cells a large amount of highly osmiophilic electron-dense PAS-negative material, lipid-like in character, was of particular interest. Similar material also filled certain areas of the aerial apoplast. A star-shaped chromatophore with central and lateral pyrenoids encompassed most of the photobiont protoplast in all the studied species. Regularly arranged thylakoids with evenly widened lumina along their entire length and osmiophilic lipid droplets adhering to their outer surfaces were visible within the pyrenoid. Inside the chloroplast, large protein inclusions tightly joined with the thylakoids were observed. The mycobionts were closely attached to each other another and with the photobionts by means of an outer osmiophilic wall layer, and formed intramural haustoria. Their protoplasts were filled with PAS-positive polysaccharides and a large amount of lipid-like substances. The photobionts were physiologically active and produced a large amount of electron-dense osmiophilic material, and PAS-positive starch grains were visible around their pyrenoids in the thalli collected in different weather conditions. The permanent reserves of nutritive materials deposited in the thalli enable these organisms to quickly begin and continue indispensable physiological processes in the extreme Antarctic conditions.