The single-phase voltage loss is a common fault. Once the voltage-loss failure occurs, the amount of electrical energy will not be measured, but it is to be calculated so as to protect the interest of the power supplier. Two automatic calculation methods, the power substitution and the voltage substitution, are introduced in this paper. Considering the lack of quantitative analysis of the calculation error of the voltage substitution method, the grid traversal method and MATLAB tool are applied to solve the problem. The theoretical analysis indicates that the calculation error is closely related to the voltage unbalance factor and the power factor, and the maximum calculation error is about 6% when the power system operates normally. To verify the theoretical analysis, two three-phase electrical energy metering devices have been developed, and verification tests have been carried out in both the lab and field conditions. The lab testing results are consistent with the theoretical ones, and the field testing results show that the calculation errors are generally below 0.2%, that is correct in most cases.
This paper presents a numerical modeling method for AC losses in highly dynamic linear actuators with high temperature superconducting (HTS) tapes. The AC losses and generated force of two actuators, with different placement of the cryostats, are compared. In these actuators, the main loss component in the superconducting tapes are hysteresis losses, which result from both the non-sinusoidal phase currents and movement of the permanent magnets. The modeling method, based on the H-formulation of the magnetic fields, takes into account permanent magnetization and movement of permanent magnets. Calculated losses as function of the peak phase current of both superconducting actuators are compared to those of an equivalent non-cryogenic actuator.
In this paper a scaling approach for the solution of 2D FE models of electric machines is proposed. This allows a geometrical and stator and rotor resistance scaling as well as a rewinding of a squirrel cage induction machine enabling an efficient numerical optimization. The 2D FEM solutions of a reference machine are calculated by a model based hybrid numeric induction machine simulation approach. In contrast to already known scaling procedures for synchronous machines the FEM solutions of the induction machine are scaled in the stator-current-rotor-frequency-plane and then transformed to the torque- speed-map. This gives the possibility to use a new time scaling factor that is necessary to keep a constant field distribution. The scaling procedure is validated by the finite element method and used in a numerical optimization process for the sizing of an electric vehicle traction drive considering the gear ratio. The results show that the scaling procedure is very accurate, computational very efficient and suitable for the use in machine design optimization.