The performance of the multi-input multi-output (MIMO) systems can be improved by spatial modulation. By using spatial modulation, the transmitter can select the best transmit antenna based on the channel variations using channel state information (CSI). Also, the modulation helps the transmitter to select the best modulation level such that the system has the best performance in all situations. Hence, in this paper, two issues are considered including spatial modulation and information modulation selection. For the spatial modulation, an optimal solution for obtaining the probability of selecting antenna is calculated and then Huffman coding is used such that the transmitter can select the best transmit antenna to maximize the channel capacity. For the information modulation, a multi quadrature amplitude modulation (MQAM) strategy is used. In this modulation, the modulation size is changed based on the channel state variations; therefore, the best modu- lation index is used for transmitting data in all channel situations. In simulation results, the optimal method is compared with Huffman mapping. In addition, the effect of modulation on channel capacity and a bit error rate (BER) is shown.
The energy efficiency of photovoltaic modules is one of the most important aspects in energetic and economic aspects of the project related to system installations. The efficiency of modules and the electricity produced by photovoltaic conversion in solar modules is affected by many factors, both internal, related to the module structure itself and its technical and external factors related to the energy infrastructure, which includes: cabling, inverters, climate conditions prevailing at the micro-installation location and the orientation and angle of inclination of the solar modules. The installation of photovoltaic modules should be preceded by an energy efficiency analysis, which will help to indicate the optimal solution adapted to the given conditions. The article presents a comparative analysis of the amount of energy produced under real and simulated conditions. Analyzes were made on the basis of research carried out in the Wind and Solar Energy Laboratory located at the AGH University of Science and Technology, data from solar irradiation data-bases and computer software for estimating energy resources. The study examined the correlation of the solar irradiation on the modules and the amount of electricity generated in the photovoltaic module. The electricity produced by the module was compared under real conditions and simulated based on two sources of data. The comparison and analysis of the amount of energy of the module were also made, taking simulated different angles of the module’s inclination into account.
The paper presents the results of the energy analysis of the conversion of solar radiation energy into electrical energy in Polish weather conditions. The effect of sunlight and working temperature on the photovoltaic module on its power curve P = f(U) is shown. STC and NOCT conditions are described for which the manufacturers specify the parameters of the photovoltaic modules. The manufacturers of photovoltaic panels should give the PPV = f(E) characteristic for the different values of the operating temperature of the modules. An analysis of the economic efficiency of a photovoltaic power plant investment of 1 MWp taking the current legal regulations for the three variants into account was presented. Variant I – the investor benefits from the support of public aid of operational only, Variant II – the investor benefits from the support of public aid for investment in the amount of PLN 1 million, Variant III – the investor benefits from the support of public aid for investment in the amount of PLN 2 million. For all variants, indicators for assessing the economic effectiveness of the investment and the value of the auction price from the maximum price to the price at which the project loses its profitability are determined.
Annoyance ratings for artificially created noises, resembling the main characteristics of temporal wind turbine noise, were studied by means of a listening experiment involving 21 participants with normal hearing. Three types of stimuli were examined: broadband noise (−4 dB/octave), noise generated by moving cars, and narrowband noise. All stimuli had the sound level fluctuations typical for wind turbine noise. The magnitude of the sound level fluctuations was measured in a quantitative way, by using the characteristics of amplitude modulated sound: modulation rate and modulation depth. Our aim was to examine how the modulation rate and the modulation depth influence the noise annoyance assessment of broadband and narrowband amplitude modulated noises. Three different modulation rates, 1, 2 and 4 Hz, and sound level fluctuations (a measure of the modulation depth), 3, 6, 9 dB, were applied to each type of stimuli (with exception of noise generated by the moving cars) and investigated. The participants in the listening experiment were presented with sound stimuli in laboratory conditions and asked to rate their annoyance on a numerical scale. The results have shown a significant difference between the investigated conditions. The effect was particularly strong between the annoyance judgments of different types of noise (narrow and broadband), and modulated versus unmodulated noises. Temporal fluctuations occurring in wind turbine noise are very pertinent to the perception of annoyance and could be responsible for its being a relatively annoying noise source. The obtained results were discussed and compared to the typical modulation rates and level changes that occur in recordings of real wind turbine noise.
A trellis coded 4-ary Pulse Amplitude Modulation (4-PAM) is presented, where the encoding algorithm is derived from Distance Preserving Mapping (DPM) algorithm. In this work, we modify the DPM algorithm for 4-PAM and obtain a new construction for mapping binary sequences to permutation sequences, where the permutation sequences are obtained by permuting symbols of a 4-PAM constellation. The resulting codebook of permutation sequences formed this way are termed mappings. We also present several metrics for assessing the performance of the mappings from our construction, and we show that a metric called the Sum of Product of Distances (SOPD) is the best metric to use when judging the performance of the mappings. Finally, performance results are presented, where the mappings from our construction are compared against each other and also against the conventional mappings in the literature.
In normal conditions, the Critical Flicker Frequency is usually 60Hz. But in some special conditions, such as low spatial frequency and high contrast between frames, these special conditions have high probability to occur in some TPVMbased applications. So it’s extremely important to verify if a visual signal with a combination of temporal and spatial frequency can be recognize by human eyes. Based on the research in the last paper ’ ’Window of Visibility’ inspired security lighting system’, this paper introduces the measuring method of WoV of human eyes. In this paper we will measure critical flicker frequency in low spatial frequency and high contrast conditions, and we can witness a different conclusion from the normal conditions.
A new method of optical frequency beat counting based on fast Fourier transform (FFT) analysis is described. Signals with a worse signal-to-noise ratio can be counted correctly comparing to the conventional counting method of detecting each period separately. The systematic error of FFT counting below 10 Hz is demonstrated and can be decreased. Additionally the modulation width of a frequency-stabilized laser with high frequency modulation index can be simultaneously measured during a carrier frequency measurement against an optical frequency synthesizer or other laser.
The paper presents the experimental study of a novel unsteady-statemembrane gas separation approach for recovery of a slow-permeant component in the membrane module with periodical retentate withdrawals. The case study consisted in the separation of binary test mixtures based on the fast-permeant main component (N2O, C2H2) and the slow-permeant impurity (1%vol. of N2) using a radial countercurrent membrane module. The novel semi-batch withdrawal technique was shown to intensify the separation process and provide up to 40% increase in separation efficiency compared to a steady-state operation of the same productivity.
An array consisting of four commercial gas sensors with target specifications for hydrocarbons, ammonia, alcohol, explosive gases has been constructed and tested. The sensors in the array operate in the dynamic mode upon the temperature modulation from 350°C to 500°C. Changes in the sensor operating temperature lead to distinct resistance responses affected by the gas type, its concentration and the humidity level. The measurements are performed upon various hydrogen (17-3000 ppm), methane (167-3000 ppm) and propane (167-3000 ppm) concentrations at relative humidity levels of 0-75%RH. The measured dynamic response signals are further processed with the Discrete Fourier Transform. Absolute values of the dc component and the first five harmonics of each sensor are analysed by a feed-forward back-propagation neural network. The ultimate aim of this research is to achieve a reliable hydrogen detection despite an interference of the humidity and residual gases.
Spatial light modulators (SLM) are devices used to modulate amplitude, phase or polarization of a light wave in space and time. Current SLMs are based either on MEMS (micro-electro-mechanical system) or LCD (liquid crystal display) technology. Here we report on the parameters, trends in development and applications of phase SLMs based on liquid crystal on silicon (LCoS) technology. LCoS technology was developed for front and rear projection systems competing with AMLCD (active matrix LCD) and DMD (Digital Mirror Device) SLM. The reflective arrangement due to silicon backplane allows to put a high number of pixels in a small panel, keeping the fill-factor ratio high even for micron-sized pixels. For coherent photonics applications the most important type of LCoS SLM is a phase modulator. In the paper at first we describe the typical parameters of this device and the methods for its calibration. Later we present a review of applications of phase LCoS SLMs in imaging, metrology and beam manipulation, developed by the authors as well as known from the literature. These include active and adaptive interferometers, a smart holographic camera and holographic display, microscopy modified in illuminating and imaging paths and active sensors.
The secretiveness of sonar operation can be achieved by using continuous frequency-modulated sounding signals with reduced power and significantly prolonged repeat time. The application of matched filtration in the sonar receiver provides optimal conditions for detection against the background of white noise and reverberation, and a very good resolution of distance measurements of motionless targets. The article shows that target movement causes large range measurement errors when linear and hyperbolic frequency modulations are used. The formulas for the calculation of these errors are given. It is shown that for signals with linear frequency modulation the range resolution and detection conditions deteriorate. The use of hyperbolic frequency modulation largely eliminates these adverse effects.
A novel method to improve the performance of the frequency band is cognitive radio that was introduced in 1999. Due to a lot of advantages of the OFDM, adaptive OFDM method, this technique is used in cognitive radio (CR) systems, widely. In adaptive OFDM, transmission rate and power of subcarriers are allocated based on the channel variations to improve the system performance. This paper investigates adaptive resource allocation in the CR systems that are used OFDM technique to transmit data. The aim of this paper is to maximize the achievable transmission rate for the CR system by considering the interference constraint. Although secondary users can be aware form channel information between each other, but in some wireless standards, it is impossible for secondary user to be aware from channel information between itself and a primary user. Therefore, due to practical limitation, statistical interference channel is considered in this paper. This paper introduces a novel suboptimal power allocation algorithm. Also, this paper introduces a novel bit loading algorithm. In the numerical results sections, the performance of our algorithm is compared by optimal and conventional algorithms. Numerical results indicate our algorithm has better performance than conventional algorithms while its complexity is less than optimal algorithm.
Digital speech copyright protection and forgery identification are the prevalent issues in our advancing digital world. In speech forgery, voiced part of the speech signal is copied and pasted to a specific location which alters the meaning of the speech signal. Watermarking can be used to safe guard the copyrights of the owner. To detect copy-move forgeries a transform domain watermarking method is proposed. In the proposed method, watermarking is achieved through Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) and Quantization Index Modulation (QIM) rule. Hash bits are also inserted in watermarked voice segments to detect Copy-Move Forgery (CMF) in speech signals. Proposed method is evaluated on two databases and achieved good imperceptibility. It exhibits robustness in detecting the watermark and forgeries against signal processing attacks such as resample, low-pass filtering, jittering, compression and cropping. The proposed work contributes for forensics analysis in speech signals. This proposed work also compared with the some of the state-of-art methods.
The parameters of sigma-delta audio DAC depend mainly on digital sigma-delta modulator's features, especially on its noise transfer function (NTF). Many methods of design and optimization of the loop filter's coefficients in sigma-delta modulators have been proposed so far. These methods enable the designer to get suitable noise transfer functions for specific application. This paper reviews NTF design and optimization methods which are particularly useful in audio applications.