This study investigated changes in the real-time measured levels of milk β-hydroxybutyrate according milk yield, lactation number and status of reproduction in dairy cows. A total of 378 cows were selected. According to their reproductive status the cows were classified as belonging to the following groups: Fresh (1 – 44 days after calving. n=43). Open (45 – 65 days after calving. n=78), Inseminated (1 – 35 days after insemination. n=133). Pregnant (35 – 60 days after insemination and pregnant (relatively pregnant) (n=124). The cows were milked with DeLaval milking robot (DeLaval Inc., Tumba, Sweden) in combination with a Herd Navigator (Lattec I/S. Hillerød. Denmark) analyser. We observed that milk β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) had a tendency of increasing with an increase of lactation number. The average BHB in multiparous cows was 11.111% higher in comparison with primiparous cows (p<0.001). We found higher BHB concentration in the multiparous cows in all reproduction status groups (p<0.001). A strong positive statistically significant (p<0.001) relationship has been found between BHB and the average milk yield within all groups of primiparous cows although we found a statistically unreliable coefficient of correlation (from -0.202 to 0.057) between highest milk yield and BHB in primiparous and multiparous cows.
Inertial navigation is a device, which estimates its position, based on sensing external conditions (such as acceleration or angular velocity). It is widely used in variuos applications. Its presence in a drone vehicle for example, allows flight stabilization, by position estimation and feedback-based regulation algorithm execution. A smartphone makes a use of inertial navigation by detecting movement and flipping screen orientation. It is a ubiquitous part of many devices of everyday use, but before using filters and algorithms allowing to calculate the position, a calibration must first be applied to the device. This paper focuses on a separate calibration of each of the sensors - an accelerometer, gyroscope and magnetometer. The further step requires a cross–sensor calibration, and the third step is implementation of data filtration algotithm.
The paper presents methods of on-line and off-line estimation of UAV position on the basis of measurements from its integrated navigation system. The navigation system installed on board UAV contains an INS and a GNSS receiver. The UAV position, as well as its velocity and orientation are estimated with the use of smoothing algorithms. For off-line estimation, a fixed-interval smoothing algorithm has been applied. On-line estimation has been accomplished with the use of a fixed-lag smoothing algorithm. The paper includes chosen results of simulations demonstrating improvements of accuracy of UAV position estimation with the use of smoothing algorithms in comparison with the use of a Kalman filter.
Research of semiotic aspects Lithuanian military air navigation charts was based on the semantic, graphic and information load analysis. The aim of semantic analysis was to determine how the conventional cartographical symbols, used in air navigation charts, correspond with carto-linguistic and carto-semiotic requirements. The analysis of all the markings was performed complex and collected by questionnaire were interviewed various respondents: pilots, cartographers and other chart users. The researches seek two aims: evaluate information and graphical load of military air navigation charts. Information load evaluated to calculate all objects and phenomenon, which was in 25 cm² of map. Charts analysis showed that in low flight charts (LFC) average information load are 4 – 5 times richer than in the operational maps. Map signs optimization on LFC has to be managed very carefully, choosing signs that can reduce the load of information and helps for the information transfer process. Graphical load of maps evaluated of aeronautical maps is not great (5 – 12%) and does not require reduction the information load and generalization of charts. Air navigation charts analysis pointed that not all air navigation sings correspond carto-semiotic requirements and must be improved. The authors suggested some new sings for military air navigation chart, which are simpler, equivalent to human psychophysical perception criteria, creates faster communication and less load on the chart.
The Paper presents the optical method of fixing the off-shore objects positions from the land. The method is based on application of two reference points, having the geographical coordinates de fined. The first point was situated high on the sea shore, where also the camera was installed. The second point was intended for use to determine the topocentric horizon plane and it was situated at the water-level. The first section of the Paper contains the definition of space and disposed therein reference systems: connected with the Earth, water-level and the camera system. The second section of the Paper provides a description of the survey system model and the principles of the Charge Coupled Device – CCD array pixel’s coordinates (plate coordinates) transformation into the geographic coordinates located on the water-level. In the final section there are presented the general rules of using the worked out method in the optical system.
The sequential method of integrating navigational parameters obtained from non-simultaneous navigational measurements is presented. The proposed algorithm of position coordinates estimation is general and includes two modes of data processing – from simultaneous and non-simultaneous measurements. It can be used in hybrid receivers of radionavigation systems integrating non-homogeneous position lines or in integrated navigation systems, particularly in receivers combining the measurements of various satellite navigation systems.
Velocity is one of the main navigation parameters of moving objects. However some systems of position estimation using radio wave measurements cannot provide velocity data due to limitation of their performance. In this paper a velocity measurement method for the DS-CDMA radio navigation system is proposed, which does not require full synchronization of reference stations carrier frequencies. The article presents basics of FDOA (frequency difference of arrival) velocity measurements together with application of this method to an experimental radio navigation system called AEGIR and with some suggestions about the possibility to implement such FDOA measurements in other kinds of asynchronous DS-CDMA radio networks. The main part of this paper present results of performance evaluation of the proposed method, based on laboratory measurements
A research study aimed at developing a novel indoor positioning system is presented. The realized system prototype uses sensor fusion techniques to combine information from two sources: an in-house developed local Ultra-Wideband (UWB) radio-based ranging system and an inertial navigation system (INS). The UWB system measures the distance between two transceivers by recording the round-trip-time (RTT) of UWB radio pulses. Its principle of operation is briefly described, together with the main design features. Furthermore, the main characteristics of the INS and of the Extended Kalman Filter information fusion approach are presented. Finally, selected static and dynamic test scenario experimental results are provided. In particular, the advantages of the proposed information fusion approach are further investigated by means of a high dynamic test scenario.
The aim of the presented work was the development of a tracking algorithm for a stereoscopic camera setup equipped with an additional inertial sensor. The input of the algorithm consists of the image sequence, angular velocity and linear acceleration vectors measured by the inertial sensor. The main assumption of the project was fusion of data streams from both sources to obtain more accurate ego-motion estimation. An electronic module for recording the inertial sensor data was built. Inertial measurements allowed a coarse estimation of the image motion field that has reduced its search range by standard image-based methods. Continuous tracking of the camera motion has been achieved (including moments of image information loss). Results of the presented study are being implemented in a currently developed obstacle avoidance system for visually impaired pedestrians.
Nairobi International Convention on the Removal of Wrecks came into force on 14th April 2015 and has been ratified by now by over 40 states across the world (among them Australia, China, India, South Africa and most of the EU countries). The convention provides legal framework for action taken by the Coastal States aiming at removal of wrecks posing danger or impediment to navigation, as well as to the marine environment, or damage to the coastline or related interests of one or more States. The Convention fills the existing legal gap by enabling the States to remove wrecks beyond their territories (as well as within if States decide so). Beside the existing international regulations like Intervention Convention or UNCLOS, the Nairobi Convention clarifies the Costal State’s rights to remove wrecks from its EEZ if they pose a danger for safe navigation or marine environment. The Convention corresponds with mentioned conventions but also equips Coastal States with new legal instruments to deal with hazardous wrecks beyond their territory. The aim of the paper is to analyse the new rights and duties of states, as well as scope of the notion of navigational and environmental threats causes by wrecks. It will refer also to regulatory problems faced by the states implementing the Convention. Even if the Convention is to be applied to territorial sea, its multiple provisions are not. Moreover, the Convention leaves many important aspects unregulated. Those issues will be analysed from the perspective of a country which has not yet ratified the Convention, and will be confronted with the experience from other jurisdictions.
In the era of humanoid robotics, navigation and path planning of humanoids in complex environments have always remained as one of the most promising area of research. In this paper, a novel hybridized navigational controller is proposed using the logic of both classical technique and computational intelligence for path planning of humanoids. The proposed navigational controller is a hybridization of regression analysis with adaptive particle swarm optimization. The inputs given to the regression controller are in the forms of obstacle distances, and the output of the regression controller is interim turning angle. The output interim turning angle is again fed to the adaptive particle swarm optimization controller along with other inputs. The output of the adaptive particle swarm optimization controller termed as final turning angle acts as the directing factor for smooth navigation of humanoids in a complex environment. The proposed navigational controller is tested for single as well as multiple humanoids in both simulation and experimental environments. The results obtained from both the environments are compared against each other, and a good agreement between them is observed. Finally, the proposed hybridization technique is also tested against other existing navigational approaches for validation of better efficiency.
The paper presents the results of research on the possibilities of fixing ship position coordinates based on results of surveying bearings on navigational marks with the use of the CCD camera. Accuracy of the determination of ship position coordinates, expressed in terms of the mean error, was assumed to be the basic criterion of this estimation. The first part of the paper describes the method of the determination of the resolution and the mean error of the angle measurement, taken with a camera, and also the method of the determination of the mean error of position coordinates when two or more bearings were measured. There have been defined three software applications assigned for the development of navigational sea charts with accuracy areas mapped on. The second part contains the results of studying accuracy in fixing ship position coordinates, carried out in the Gulf of Gdansk, with the use of bearings taken obtained with the Rolleiflex and Sony cameras. The results are presented in a form of diagrams of the mean error of angle measurement, also in the form of navigational charts with accuracy fields mapped on. In the final part, basing on results obtained, the applicability of CCD cameras in automation of coastal navigation performance process is discussed.
The upcoming hypersonic technologies pose a difficult task for air navigation systems. The article presents a designed model of elastic interaction of penetrating acoustic radiation with flat isotropic suspension elements of an inertial navigation sensor in the operational conditions of hypersonic flight. It has been shown that the acoustic transparency effect in the form of a spatial-frequency resonance becomes possible with simultaneous manifestation of the wave coincidence condition in the acoustic field and equality of the natural oscillation frequency of a finite-size plate and a forced oscillation frequency of an infinite plate. The effect can lead to additional measurement errors of the navigation system. Using the model, the worst and best case suspension oscillation frequencies can be determined, which will help during the design of a navigation system.
This paper describes the prototype version of a mobile application supporting independent movement of the blind. Its objective is to improve the quality of life of visually impaired people, providing them with navigational assistance in urban areas. The authors present the most important modules of the application. The module for precise positioning using DGPS data from the ASG-EUPOS network as well as enhancements of positioning in urban areas, based on the fusion with other types of data sources, are presented. The devices, tools and software for the acquisition and maintenance of dedicated spatial data are also described. The module responsible for navigation with a focus on an algorithms' quality and complexity, as well as the user interface dedicated for the blind are discussed. The system's main advantages over existing solutions are emphasized, current results are described, and plans for future work briefly outlined.
In this paper, we present an optimization mechanism for two popular landmark-based mobile robot visual homing algorithms (ALV and HiSS), called vector pre-assigned mechanism (VPM). VPM contains two branches, both of which can promote the homing performance effectively. In addition, to make the landmark distribution satisfy the equal distance assumption, a landmark optimization strategy is proposed based on imaging principle of the panoramic vision. Experiments on both panoramic image database and a real mobile robot have confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed methods.
The study addresses the challenges facing the law of the sea. Although UNCLOS is rightly described as a constitution of the law of the sea, it does not and cannot give answers to all problems and doubts that arise in practice and that are related to global warming, protection of biodiversity, legal status of genetic resources, controversy concerning shipping, delimitation of areas or the protection of underwater cultural heritage. Hence the question arises, what the ways and means of further development of the law of the sea are. Undoubtedly, one of the possibilities is to develop implementation agreements, of which the third devoted to the protection and sustainable use of marine biodiversity outside national jurisdiction is the subject of an international conference convened by the General Assembly, whose resolutions in the area of the law of the sea play an important role. Undoubtedly, also the importance of the organization of the United Nations system, such as the IMO, FAO, UNESCO, UNEP is significant. There is also the possibility of accepting agreements addressing the issues left by UNCLOS without solution or definition. Not without significance is the soft law and the practice of states as well as the position of the organs appointed by UNCLOS.
In the paper, two preprocessing methods for virtual view synthesis are presented. In the first approach, both horizontal and vertical resolutions of the real views and the corresponding depth maps are doubled in order to perform view synthesis on images with densely arranged points. In the second method, real views are filtered in order to eliminate blurred or improperly shifted edges of the objects. Both methods are performed prior to synthesis, thus they may be applied to different Depth-Image-Based Rendering algorithms. In the paper, for both proposed methods, the achieved quality gains are presented.
The paper presents a method of developing a variable structure measurement system with intelligent components for flight vehicles. In order to find a distinguishing feature of a variable structure, a numerical criterion for selecting measuring sensors is proposed by quantifying the observability of different states of the system. Based on the Peter K. Anokhin’s theory of functional systems, a mechanism of “action acceptor” is built with intelligent components, e.g. self-organization algorithms. In this mechanism, firstly, prediction models of system states are constructed using self-organization algorithms; secondly, the predicted and measured values are compared; thirdly, an optimal structure of the measurement system is finally determined based on the results of comparison. According to the results of simulation with practical data and experiments obtained during field tests, the novel developed measurement system has the properties of high-accuracy, reliable operation and fault tolerance.
The paper presents a method of calculation of position deviations from a theoretical, nominally rectilinear trajectory for a SAR imaging system installed on board of UAV. The UAV on-board system consists of a radar sensor, an antenna system, a SAR processor and a navigation system. The main task of the navigation part is to determine the vector of differences between the theoretical and the measured trajectories of UAV center of gravity. The paper includes chosen results of experiments obtained during ground and flight tests.
An electronic system and an algorithm for estimating pedestrian geographic location in urban terrain is reported in the paper. Different sources of kinematic and positioning data are acquired (i.e.: accelerometer, gyroscope, GPS receiver, raster maps of terrain) and jointly processed by a Monte-Carlo simulation algorithm based on the particle filtering scheme. These data are processed and fused to estimate the most probable geographical location of the user. A prototype system was designed, built and tested with a view to aiding blind pedestrians. It was shown in the conducted field trials that the method yields superior results to sole GPS readouts. Moreover, the estimated location of the user can be effectively sustained when GPS fixes are not available (e.g. tunnels).
The paper will discuss the Russian involvement in the Holy Land that started from informal actions to evolve into formal activities of religious, trading and scientific institutions related to the Russian authorities.