Vaccination is a common routine for prevention and control of human and animal diseases by inducing antibody responses and cell-mediated immunity in the body. Through vaccinations, smallpox and some other diseases have been eradicated in the past few years. The use of a patho- gen itself or a subunit domain of a protein antigen as immunogens lays the basis for traditional vaccine development. But there are more and more newly emerged pathogens which have expe- rienced antigenic drift or shift under antibody selective pressures, rendering vaccine-induced im- munity ineffective. In addition, vaccine development has been hampered due to problems includ- ing difficulties in isolation and culture of certain pathogens and the antibody-dependent enhancement of viral infection (ADE). How to induce strong antibody responses, especially neu- tralizing antibody responses, and robust cell-mediated immune responses is tricky. Here we re- view the progress in vaccine development from traditional vaccine design to reverse vaccinology and structural vaccinology and present with some helpful perspectives on developing novel vac- cines.
The aim of the article is to analyze literary images of women who had an impact on the history of Poland in the historical novel Gambit hetmański (2014), written by Robert Foryś. This type of fiction is a popular variety of the genre, its main theme is the conflict between political factions fighting for power. The leaders of the factions are women. The article focus on the answer to the question: whether Foryś creating scandalous portraits of women who reach for power is a threat or a chance for them to recall and preserve their presence in history.
Natural gas is a mixture of 21 components and it is widely used in industries and homes. Knowledge of its thermodynamic properties is essential for designing appropriate processes and equipment. This paper presents simple but precise correlations of how to compute important thermodynamic properties of natural gas. As measuring natural gas composition is costly and may not be effective for real time process, the correlations are developed based on measurable real time properties. The real time properties are temperature, pressure and specific gravity of the natural gas. Calculations with these correlations are compared with measured values. The validations show that the average absolute percent deviation (AAPD) for compressibility factor calculations is 0.674%, for density is 2.55%, for Joule-Thomson coefficient is 4.16%. Furthermore, in this work, new correlations are presented for computing thermal properties of natural gas such as enthalpy, internal energy and entropy. Due to the lack of experimental data for these properties, the validation is done for pure methane. The validation shows that AAPD is 1.31%, 1.56% and 0.4% for enthalpy, internal energy and entropy respectively. The comparisons show that the correlations could predict natural gas properties with an error that is acceptable for most engineering applications.
The article corresponds to the 400th death annniversary of two famous European writers – Cervantes and Shakespeare – celebrated all around the world. The author tells about their lifes and takes into consideration the possiblility of their meeting together in Vailladolid. Besides, the author emphasizes on the qualities that are in common for Shakespeare’s and Cervantes’ works – among others the universality (their readers were both educated as well as simple), the ability to create symbolic figures and the application of colloquial language.
The paper examines the most important Italian historical novel and focuses on its principal migration routes, especially concerning main characters. It also examines a variety of representations of border and frontier (also in a metaphorical sense) in the novel.
The aim of this paper is to analyse and interprete the prose text "Vor der Zunahme der Zeichen" by the young, German-speaking writer who as a child fled from the civil war in Sri Lanka. The paper provides an analysis of the contingency of language signs (like homeland, descent, native language, identity) which is a function of the experience of flight, exile, and live in the globalized and electronic media-dominated world. The central role in the novel is played by the relation between death and literary language and its communicative and perception function.
In her reflections on cultural memory, which “is based on communication through media,” Astrid Erll uses the term “remediation” in order to “refer to the fact that memorable events are usually represented again and again, over decades and centuries, in different media: in newspaper articles, photography, diaries, historiography, novels, films, etc.” Some of these events may even become sites of memory. In my article, in relation to cultural memory studies, I contemplate the genocide of the Yezidis in the Sinǧār district, which was committed by ISIS militants in August 2014 and in the following months, as reflected in four Iraqi novels written in the Arabic language. They are: Raqṣat al-ǧadīla wa-an-nahr (“The Dance of the Braid and the River”, 2015) by Wafā’ ‘Abd ar-Razzāq, ‘Aḏrā’ Sinǧār (“Sinǧār’s Virgin”, 2016) by Wārid Badr as-Sālim, Šamdīn (“Šamdīn”, 2016) by Rāsim Qāsim, and Šaẓāyā Fayrūz (“The Shattered Fragments of Fayrūz”, 2017) by Nawzat Šamdīn. By analysing the ways in which these writers depict ISIS persecution of the Yezidis, I aim to answer, among others, the following questions: What are their reasons for a literary documentation of these events? Is the iconic image of the genocide which emerges in the four novels similar to that outlined in the West media coverage? Therefore, the first part of the article concentrates on attitudes of the above-mentioned Iraqi writers to the Sinǧār tragedy. In the second part, the plots of their novels are briefly described with the focus on how the reality intermingles with fiction. In the third and in the fourth parts, literary modes of expression, which serve to create a symbolic resistance of Yezidi victims against their oppressors, by giving them voice and showing alternative realities and fantastic events, are examined.
The aim of the article is to present the issue of loneliness of Iraqi women on the basis of selected novels written by Iraqi female writers in the 21st century. The first part of the article, which is preceded by an introduction to the topic, includes general information about the development of novels by Iraqi women writers since the second half of the 1990s and some remarks about their methods of portraying female characters. The second part of the article provides examples of lonely women in their narratives whereas the third part depicts a story of Riyām, the heroine in the novel Riyām wa-Kafā (Riyam and Kafa, 2014) by Hadiya Husayn, in a more detailed way.
Czarny Paryż [The Back Paris] is a crime novel written by Jolanta Fuchsówna, journalist and writer, and Jan Brzękowski, leading poet of the Cracow Avant-garde who lived in Paris, and serialized in the Cracow daily Ilustrowany Kurier Codzienny in 1932, but not published as a book. In this article two typescripts of the novel are analyzed and compared with the printed text, taking note of all the corrections and amendments introduced by the authors. An integral supplement to this textual study is an extract from Chapter XIII ‘A Party in the Studio of the Japanese Man’ reproduced in two versions, 1) with footnotes and modernized spelling, and 2) the original text from the typescript with all annotations.
This article combines a general introduction to the crime fi ction of Walery Przyborowski with a study of the structure of the plot of his novels. The analyses of ten of his novels conclude with a typology of their narrative schemes, shown in the context of certain invariant patterns and the conventions of related literary genres. While the main objective of this study is to outline the structure of crime story and the social issues depicted in Przyborowski’s crime fi ction, it also pays some attention to the ways in which it refl ects his concerns about contemporary life and the condition of Poland under foreign rule. Basically, Przyborowski’s formula is to make use of the staples of the genre – mystery, adventure, romance – and the techniques of the popular novel. Moreover, his novels, like all of the 19th-century crime fi ctions, are clearly indebted to the conventions of the historical novel.
This work describes a new study to achieve a combination of modified function projective synchronization between three different chaotic systems through adaptive control. Using the Lyapunov function theory, the asymptotic stability of the error dynamics is obtained and discussed. Further, we set some appropriate initial conditions for the state variables and assigning specific values to the parameters and obtain the graphical results, which shows the efficiencies of the new method. Finally, we summarized our work with conclusion and references.
A silent language: imagining the dialect in Ferrante’s novels – Elena Ferrante’s novels are not examples of plurilingual literature; in fact they do not mix diatopic varieties of Italian and dialect, even if, above all in the stories in My Brilliant Friend, Italian readers can perceive the sounds of the Neapolitan dialect. To achieve this effect, Elena Ferrante uses metalinguistic glosses, which alert the reader when the characters pass from one language to another. The essay examines the features of the glosses, which are cleverly inserted, do not hinder reading, and manage to transport the reader to among the houses and the sounds of Naples.
This article has two outreach aims. It concisely summarizes the main research and technical efforts in the EC H2020 ARIES Integrating Activity – Accelerator Research and Innovation for European Science and Society  during the period 2017/2018. ARIES is a continuation of CARE, TIARA and EuCARD projects [2-3]. The article also tries to show these results as an encouragement for local physics and engineering, research and technical communities to participate actively in such important European projects. According to the author’s opinion this participation may be much bigger [4-27]. All the needed components to participate – human, material and infrastructural are there [4,7]. So why the results are not satisfying as they should be? The major research subjects of ARIES are: new methods of particles acceleration including laser, plasma and particle beam interactions, new materials and accelerator components, building new generations of accelerators, energy efficiency and management of large accelerator systems, innovative superconducting magnets, high field and ultra-high gradient magnets, cost lowering, system miniaturization, promotion of innovation originating from accelerator research, industrial applications, and societal implications. Two institutions from Poland participate in ARIES – these are Warsaw University of Technology and Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology in Warsaw. There are not present some of the key institutes active in accelerator technology in Poland. Let this article be a small contribution why Poland, a country of such big research potential, contributes so modestly to the European accelerator infrastructural projects? The article bases on public and internal documents of ARIES project, including the EU Grant Agreement and P1 report. The views presented in the paper are only by the author and not necessarily by the ARIES.
This article, focused principally on the exploration of contingency, the body and disgust in Michał Witkowski’s novel Margot, is also a polemic and a vindication of the book against the barrage of criticism it received from its reviewers. Most of them decided that Margot was a novel about nothing, a haphazard mix of sundry discourses devoid of any linear structure. In fact, several critics blamed the author of giving away both the narrative structure and the plot to capricious contingency. The article takes a fi rm stance against such charges and argues that contingency does not need to be seen as a fault at all. It lies at the heart of the novel and determines the actions of characters, but it plays as important a role in people’s lives outside fi ction. Analysing the ups and down of the main characters (Margot and Wadek Mandarynka), the article explains the function of emotions, the body, the characters’ language and their ideas of sacrum in the legitimization of contingency. A special role in this mechanism is played by disgust. Reactions of disgust are always contingent, or, as Julia Kristeva puts it the abject has the power to terrorize the subject to such extent that he can do nothing but to succumb to contingency. In working out the idea of the contingency of selfhood, the article also draws on Richard Rorty’s approach, and in particular his concept of ironism. The latter is used to classify the main character of Witkowski’s book as a consummate ironist, i.e. a person who tests different languages in which the world can be described in order to pursue his carnal desires. Finally, the article argues that in his novel Witkowski not only brings to light the fortuitous character of the postmodern identity but also creates a heterogeneous language to express it.