In the article the author discusses the practice associated with name-giving among the residents of Łódź (only Catholics of Polish origin) during the period from the beginning of the seventeenth century to the first half of the nineteenth century. The material was collected from official documents. Habits associated with the first names were treated as a kind of linguistic behaviour that implements a specific communication need of the given community. Observations of these habits show that they oscillate — like any linguistic behaviour — between automatism (and convention) and spontaneity. Conventional measures that should be considered: the use of a limited collection of names that indicate a high degree of stability in subsequent periods and against the background of habits of name-giving in the region and other territories of the former Poland (especially the most popular names of women, e.g. Marianna, Katarzyna, Agnieszka and names of men, e.g. Józef, Jan, Franciszek) and inheritance of names. In contrast, a large number of rare names (names of women, e.g. Idalia, Jokasta, Kasylda, and of men, e.g. Bonawentura, Wit, Witalis) and a visible preference in some families for the usage of rare names, e.g. Damazy, Feliks, Lubomira (including Slavic first names, e.g. Bolesław, Władysław, Bronisław) were included as spontaneous factors. Analysis of the material reveals a tendency to differentiate names depending on the social status of the inhabitants (the representatives of the noble families often used rare names). The author also draws attention to the problem of the diversity of names in Łódź (both in the context of different collections of names and different practices) depending on parameters such as the religion (Catholics, Protestants, Jews) and nationality (Poles, Germans, Czechs) of residents of the city.
This paper is presents the research and analysis of rock climbing routes in Slovakia. It is concerned with a specific set of proper names which are known and used among rock climbers. In the Slovak onomastics J. Bauko has predominantly researched such proper names. Rock climbing has its own rules, morals, and ethics. The aim of the paper is to analyse proper names of rock climbing routes and to analysed the onymic processes used in the formation of these names. Proper names of rock climbing routes represent a specific set of names which reflect culture, language, and the social situation. In the paper, we present an overview of the names of rock climbing routes in Slovakia and a division of the names according to the type of motivation.
In the article there are presented the most popular Jewish names selected from the municipal books of Grabowiec and fi les of city Grabowiec XVII and XVIII century. As a result of gathered materials it has been found that Jews adapted their names to the patterns existing on the area of residence. The formant –ko was especially popular. That formant was the most popular in Ukrainian antroponymy: Heszko, Icko, Judko, Lewko. To the most popular names used by Jews as Icko (17), Lewko (11), Marko (5), Moszko (4) the names of the origin of the Bible: Dawid (6), Juda (5), Aron (4), Boruch (3), Hebraic: Jakub (9), Chaim (5), Maier (4), Yiddish: Leyba (6), Zusman (3). can be added. Frequencies complement the variants of the specifi c names.
The author analyses onymic practices of Poznań–based craftsmen forming guilds. In the names of the inhabitants of Poznań, which stabilised until the end of the 18th century, she seeks traces of the so-called cognomens, i.e. secondary personal designations granted to apprentices who were becoming masters. The names resulted from community acts of creation, which were of ludic nature. Referring to German onymic practices and pointing to the so-called Schleifnamen, the author discusses specific codes of European middle-class culture. She focuses on the transfer of models and patterns to Polish urban communities.
The paper points out the role of terms in academic activity, particularly in onomastics. A survey of onomastic terms present in Polish dictionaries of linguistic terminology and onomastic encyclopaedias has been made. The need has been stressed to follow the rules of terminography in every dictionary of terms. Some normative terms, such as official name, dialectal name, minority name, have been suggested to be included as additional entries in glossaries of onomastic terms.
The article presents the results of the analysis of “The Register of Ivan the Terrible’s oprichniki” – a document from the second half of the 16th century. It is precisely at this period that the present day three-part naming system: name – patronymic – surname was being established in Muscovy. The author attempts to prove that at this time the social status of a man could have been deduced from the formal exponents of his name: the number of its constituents, the structure of its patronymic, the fact that the name belongs to non-calendar or Christian names, and also from certain derivational markers.
Proper names are a relatively stable part of the cultural landscape and cultural traditions that were shaped for decades and centuries. They reflect cultural and social development, the development of spiritual culture, ethnic conditions and relations, language and dialects. This study addresses proper names as psycholinguistic and sociolinguistic elements whose formation and behavior are connected to the onymic space as well as its users. The author presents some circumstances affecting the common cultural values of proper names from the developmental aspect. The cultural and historical value of proper names is evaluated in relation to the objects motivating the names, and their significance to the name-givers. The language competencies of the society, and the modus operandi of proper names are also taken into account in the evaluation. Such values are reflected even in the current use of proper names and the relations of the community to them. The proper name represents the human connection to the place where an individual lives, it is an expression of this relationship and thus presents a peculiar anthropological phenomenon. It is important from the bottom-up perspective of users of the proper name within a regional onymic system. This study addresses the types of changes in oykonyms influenced by political and social changes and their impact on the social value of a proper name, its functions, motivational and communication potential of unofficial historical names. The author understands the proper name as part of tradition, culture and universal human heritage.
Wine is a crucial part of the cultural history of the territory within the current borders of Bulgaria from the earliest times until now. It plays an important role in the life of Bulgarians and is a multiethnic heritage of this land. Bulgarian toponyms only archive a lexicon associated with wine in a small degree, with more toponyms found regarding vines and vineyards which were characteristic elements of the native landscape. The Bulgarian enonyms constitute a “multilingual patchwork”, where the locality (present, but not dominant) is mixed with globality. Locality is mainly reflected in the detoponymic and deanthroponymic names referring to the Bulgarian heritage and also the Thracian, Greek and Roman legacy of those lands. Globality is revealed in the linguistic “hybridity” manifested by the free use of foreign models, naming vocabulary and intertextuality appealing to a global experience. This part of Bulgarian enonymy derives mainly from the English and French language, as well as Spanish, Italian, Greek and Latin.
The article directly and indirectly refers to anthropological and philosophical texts which strive to discover and present the gender factor as important in the light of the humanities. The author refers to “Literackie nie-nazywanie. Onomastykon polskiej prozy współczesnej” (Literary Not-naming. Onomasticon of the modern Polish prose) by Magdalena Graf and indicates the femininity factor as a relevant one also in onomastics.
This article deals with a group of Polish surnames motivated by lexis from the field of salt mining. The analysed surnames are excerpted from “Słownik nazwisk współcześnie w Polsce używanych”, edited by Kazimierz Rymut, as well as from other onomastic compilations. These anthroponyms vary in terms of their origins and linguistic construction. We can distinguish from among these anthroponyms: 1) surnames motivated by impersonal nouns: solanka, solnica, sól, tołpa, żupa; 2) surnames motivated by adjectives: słony, solny; 3) surnames motivated by personal nouns: prasoł, solarz, solnik, warzyc, warzysz, żupnik. The description of particular ‛salt’ surnames, apart from their frequency, includes their geographical distribution, which only in some cases is connected with the location of old salt mines, found mainly in the Lesser Poland (Małopolska).
This study is focused on scholarship on proper names within a sociolinguistic framework. The main aim of this study is to clarify the term socio-onomastics and its meaning and usage with regards to toponomastics. Special attention is paid to the genesis of socio-onomastics and to the relations between sociolinguistics, onomastics and socio-onomastics. The influence of social aspects on the act of naming and on the entire existence of names is also taken into consideration when discussing the use of socio-onomastics. The text discusses views and attitudes towards the topic presented in linguistic literature. The socio-onomastic aspects are predominantly studied in scholarship on personal names, e.g. name creation and choice. In the case of place names, they are studied more rarely and the research pays attention mostly to the usage of place names in communication. Available toponomastic and anthroponomastic works using the term socio-onomastics in their description have been analyzed, as well as theoretical onomastic literature, producing several findings of differences in the usage of this term. The main topics of socio-antroponomastic literature are anthroponymy of various social groups, social aspects of name choice, social aspects of the development of naming systems, popularity of names, nicknames, hypocorisms and slang naming. The socio-toponomastic works mainly deal with the toponymy of various social groups, toponymic competence (knowledge and usage of toponyms), non-standardized toponyms, slang toponyms, social-based toponyms (commemorative toponyms), social-based renaming, and the linguistic landscape.
The changes in the paralinguistic (social, economic, cultural) and linguistic sphere influence the quantitative and qualitative changes in a categorically diversified onomastic resource and the communicative flow of its elements on three levels of linguistic contact — nationwide, local and individual. The flow is additionally determined in the sphere of spontaneous everyday communication and in higher communicative functions (official linguistic behaviour). The accumulation of determinants which allow the usage of appropriate names and appellative forms (official and unofficial, e.g. diminutives, feminisms) involves the application of cumulative research methods, including psycho-, socio- and pragmalinguistic description of proper names functioning in communication. The contemporary theory of discourse in its three dimensions — formal, functional and interactional gives this possibility. It also requires the constant specification and standardization of Neoslavonic onomastic terminology.