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Abstrakt

Psychodrama jest metodą terapii i rozwoju osobistego, która silnie angażuje – prócz intelektu – ciało i emocje. Często korzysta z symboli i metafor, bazując na naturalnej skłonności do zabawy, jednocześnie wyzwala spontaniczność i kreatywność. Została stworzona przez Jakuba Morena na początku dwudziestego wieku. Przez długi czas ulegała modyfikowaniu. Rozwój psychodramy przyczynił się do dostosowania jej narzędzi do różnych potrzeb i sytuacji grupowych. Dziś jest szeroko stosowana w psychoterapii, rozwoju osobistym, biznesie, a także w edukacji. Celem prezentowanego opracowania jest ukazanie użyteczności psychodramy jako narzędzia sprzyjającego (z)rozumieniu niepełnosprawności przez osoby (nie)pełnosprawne (tj. rozumienie niepełnosprawności przez osoby pełnosprawne, ale także – zrozumienie swoich ograniczeń przez osoby niepełnosprawne). Zamierzeniem pośrednim jest przedstawienie ogólnych założeń psychodramy oraz korzyści płynących z wykorzystania jej technik dla rozwoju między innymi: nauczycieli, terapeutów, wychowawców lub innych osób pracujących z osobami niepełnosprawnymi intelektualnie – słuchaczy studiów podyplomowych pedagogiki specjalnej w zakresie oligofrenopedagogiki.
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Abstrakt

Developing the empathic attitude is one of the tasks of medical education as it aff ects the quality of therapeutic contact in the relationship between the doctor and the patient, conditioning the treatment process. According to Davis’s concept, empathy is defi ned as an aff ective-cognitive reaction in the context of the other person’s experience. Aim: Analysis of profi les of empathic sensitivity in students of medicine. Group: Male and female students of the fi ft h year of medicine who agreed to participate in an anonymous study (n = 153; M = 57, F = 96; mean age: 23 years). Tools: Th e Empathetic Sensitivity Scale (EES), which is the Polish tool for Davis’s Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI) was used. Th e ESS includes three sub-scales: Empathic Care (EC), Personal Distress (PD) and Adopting Perspective (AP). Results: The raw results were converted into sten scores and for sten scores for all three dimensions of empathetic sensitivity no diff erences were found between male and female students. Th ree clusters (1: n = 33%, 2: n = 39%, 3: n = 28%), which diff er in terms of each distinguished indicator, were identifi ed. Conclusions: Th e first cluster characterizes empathetic people, both in the aff ective and cognitive spheres, and those dealing well with unpleasant emotions in situations diffi cult to others. Th e second cluster characterizes participants with the ability to recognize the needs of others and to take into account their perspectives; the third cluster includes participants with a tendency to focus on their own experiences emerging in response to other people’s suff ering but with the ability to understand a situation and show empathic concern for the other person. The most favourable profi le — for a future doctor as well as for his patients — is the fi rst cluster because the doctor, with his empathic sensitivity directed towards the other man, can deal with his own unpleasant emotions.
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Abstrakt

W artykule została podjęta problematyka funkcjonowania osób z niepełnosprawnościami na poziomie kształcenia wyższego. Okres studiów związany jest najczęściej ze zmianą dotychczasowego przebiegu życia. Zmiany obejmują różne obszary i powodują wchodzenie w nowe role. Ten ważny etap jest szansą na usamodzielnienie, określenie swojej pozycji w grupie, ukształtowanie swojego „wczesnodorosłego światopoglądu”. Celem tekstu jest ukazanie typologii studentów niepełnosprawnych na podstawie analizy ich zachowań, jakie przejawiają, będąc członkami społeczności akademickiej. Źródeł tych zachowań można dopatrywać się zarówno w różnych czynnikach interpersonalnych, jak i intrapersonalnych, wynikających z charakteru danej osoby. Zaprezentowana autorska typologia została również ukazana w odniesieniu do Teorii Cech Osobowości Costy i McCrae. Pozwoliło to na rozszerzenie powyższej typologii o określone podtypy.
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Abstrakt

Humans vary in many aspects of their psychology with differences routinely found in patterns of thoughts, feelings, and behaviours, setting individuals apart across time and place. Though many psychologists have attempted to account for these individual differences, one area that has continued to generate interest and disagreement is the concept of motivation. Today, understanding behavioural motivation remains one of the most important questions facing personality theorists. In an attempt to better account for human motivation, the present exploration reviews seminal theoretical positions put forward by Sigmund Freud from a Psychoanalytical perspective and contrastingly, that of Carl Rogers from the Humanistic approach. Critical consideration is specifically applied to how verifiable each perspective may be and the degree of empirical support either account has attained to date. Whilst understanding human motivation is not a new endeavour, the present exploration provides a contemporary critical assessment of traditional psychological explanations.
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Abstrakt

Subjective Well-Being is related to the Big-Five and to Individualistic and Collectivistic beliefs of Polish adolescents. In the present study, we examined whether Individualism and Collectivism beliefs mediate between the Big-Five and Subjective Well-being among adolescents, young and middle-aged adults. Adolescents (N = 174, 36% men, aged 14–18), young (N = 254, 45% men, aged 19–24) and middle-aged adults (N = 252, 54% men, aged 40–55) completed the NEO-FFI, the Ind-Col20, and measures of Subjective Well-being. The three groups differed on all dimensions. Adolescents reported the highest Neuroticism, the lowest Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, the highest Individualism and Collectivism beliefs and lowest SWB. Among adolescents, SEM analyses indicated that Subjective Well-being was negatively related to Neuroticism and Agreeableness, positively to Extraversion, Conscientiousness, Horizontal Individualism, Horizontal and Vertical Collectivism. Among young and middle-aged adults Subjective Well-being was negatively related to Neuroticism and Horizontal Collectivism, positively to Openness, Conscientiousness, Horizontal and Vertical Individualism. Beliefs partially mediated the effects of traits. Relationships were different for cognitive and affective Subjective Well-being indices.
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Abstrakt

The present study focused on relationships between personality traits, self-efficacy, self-esteem and basic trust, and well-being in context of entrepreneurial activity. Participants were 301 unemployed people, 157 of whom had received a grant from an employment agency to start their own business. Participants completed measures of personality traits, self-efficacy, self-esteem, basic trust, satisfaction with life, positive and negative affect. To verify if beliefs about the self and about the world mediated relationships between personality traits and well-being we conducted a multiple-sample SEM. The study results confirm that the beliefs mediate relationships between personality traits and well-being. They also show that different types of beliefs serve a different function, depending on an individual’s circumstances. Among grant acceptors, self-efficacy did not impact well-being, while self-esteem and basic trust had similar functions in both groups.
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Abstrakt

In integrated approaches to personality (McAdams & Pals, 2006; McCrae & Costa, 1999), it is possible to examine relationships between personality traits, beliefs as characteristic adaptations, and subjective well-being. This research aimed to verify if implicit self-theories (belief about stability of human nature) proposed by Dweck (2000) and life-engagement proposed by Scheier et al. (2006) play a mediating role in relationships between personality traits and satisfaction with life. The relationships were examined with respect to infertility problem. A sample of 120 adults (aged 26–48; M = 36.60; SD = 4.82; 50% women) participated in the research. The mediation hypotheses were examined, and furthermore, four groups of couples were compared in terms of measured variables. The groups were: couples with (1) cured and (2) uncured infertility and couples who were not infertile and (3) have and (4) do not have children. Life-engagement mediated the relationship between Conscientiousness and satisfaction with life in the whole sample. The belief about stability of human nature mediated relationships between subjective well-being and Conscientiousness, Agreeableness, Neuroticism, and Extraversion only among couples with an infertility problem.
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