Search results

Filters

  • Journals
  • Keywords
  • Date

Search results

Number of results: 75
items per page: 25 50 75
Sort by:

Abstract

Fabrication and microstructure of the AlSi11 matrix composite containing 10 % volume fraction of CrFe30C8 particles were presented in this paper. Composite suspension was manufactured by using mechanical stirring. During stirring process the temperature of liquid metal, time of mixing and rotational speed of mixer were fixed. After stirring process composite suspension was gravity cast into shell mould. The composites were cast, applying simultaneously an electromagnetic field. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of changes in the frequency of the current power inductor on the morphology of the reinforcing phase in the aluminum matrix. The concept is based on the assumption that a chromium-iron matrix of CrFe30C8 particles dissolves and residual carbide phases will substantially strengthen the composite. The microstructure and interface structure of the AlSi11/CrFe30C8 composite has been studied by optical microscopy, scanning microscopy and X-ray diffraction.
Go to article

Abstract

The article presents personal memories of Professor Aleksander Koj’s alumni. Professor Aleksander Koj was a world-class biochemist of significant scientific achievements, a renowned authority in the field of acute-phase response regulation and acute-phase proteins. He was an excellent academic, a true Master, admired and followed by many Polish biochemists. Thrice he served as the Rector of the Jagiellonian University in Kraków. He navigated the University through a difficult time of political transformation in Poland, modernized the management system of the University and led to the commencement of the construction of the new University campus. He was the co-creator and the first Chairman of the Conference of Rectors of Academic Schools in Poland. He will be remembered as a devoted community worker aiming at strengthening the bond between the Polish community abroad and our homeland, propagating knowledge, promoting the concept of European integration, democracy and tolerance, as well as the collaboration between scientists, artists and men and women of culture. He was wise, righteous, and noble. Many had the honor of calling him their friend, and a great many saw in him a moral authority.
Go to article

Abstract

Horizontal centrifugal casting is an effective method for the production of hollow metal with good mechanical properties, low defect, cast to size and relatively cheap. The ability of a metal to satisfy the above requirements highly depends on its microstructure. In this study, the relationship between microstructural parameters such as grain size and the amount of phases with bulk hardness of SnCu4Pb3 is concerned in three areas of the product. Consequently, to achieve the desired hardness of the product in a particular area, the interaction of two factors of the microstructure including, grain size and particles amount of the hard intermetallic compositions (Cu6Sn5) should be noted.
Go to article

Abstract

Effects of confinement on mechanical, structural and thermodynamic properties of uniform fluids are very well understood. In contrast, a general theory based on statistical thermodynamics for confined nonuniform and non-isotropic phases, such as the lamellar phase, is in its infancy. In this review we focus on the lamellar phase confined in a slit or in a pipe in order to illustrate various effects of confinement. We limit ourselves to the results obtained by M. Tasinkevych, V. Babin and the author for lamellar phases in oil-water-surfactant mixtures within a generic semi-microscopic model, using a mean-field approximation. We show that compared to isotropic fluids the excess grand potential contains additional terms associated with structural deformations. These terms depend on the type of the confining walls, the shape of the container and on the thickness of the lamella. As a result of the dependence of the structure of the confined lamellar phase on the shape of the container, capillary lamellarization and capillary delamellarization is found in slits and in pipes respectively.
Go to article

Abstract

Eutectoid growth, as the important reaction mechanism of the carbon steel heat treatment, is the basis to control the microstructure and performance. At present, most studies have focused on lamellar growth, and did not consider the nucleation process. Mainly due to the nucleation theory is inconclusive, a lot of research can support their own theory in a certain range. Based on the existing nucleation theory, this paper proposes a cooperative nucleation model to simulate the nucleation process of eutectoid growth. In order to ensure that the nucleation process is more suitable to the theoretical results, different correction methods were used to amend the model respectively. The results of numerical simulation show that when the model is unmodified, the lateral growth of single phase is faster than that of longitudinal growth, so the morphology is oval. Then, the effects of diffusion correction, mobility correction and ledges nucleation mechanism correction on the morphology of nucleation and the nucleation rate were studied respectively. It was found that the introduction of boundary diffusion and the nucleation mechanism of the ledges could lead to a more realistic pearlite.
Go to article

Abstract

The disposal of ash in a thermal plant through the slurry pipe is subjected to some erosion wear due to the abrasive characteristics of the slurry. A simulation study of particle-liquid erosion of mild steel pipe wall based on CFD-FLUENT that considers the solid-liquid, solid-solid and solid-wall interaction is presented in this work. The multi-phase Euler-Lagrange model with standard k-epsilon turbulence modeling is adopted to predict the particulate erosion wear caused by the flow of bottom ash-water suspension. Erosion rate for different particle size and concentration is evaluated at variable flow rate. It is observed that the pressure drop and erosion rate share direct relationships with flow velocity, particle size and concentration. The flow velocity is found to be the most influencing parameter. A model capable of predicting the erosion wear at variable operating conditions is presented. The simulation findings show good agreement with the published findings.
Go to article

Abstract

Microwave frequency detectors enable immediate determination of an unknown microwave signal frequency. Measurement is possible if the output characteristic of a frequency detector is unequivocal in a selected band of operation. The paper presents a method for obtaining unequivocal output characteristics for a given band of frequency detector operation.
Go to article

Abstract

This paper reports the results of research involving observations of flow patterns during air-oil-water three-phase flow through a vertical pipe with an internal diameter of 0.03 m and a length of 3 m. The conductometric method based on the measurement of electrical conductivity of the gas-liquid-liquid system was used to evaluate the flow patterns. In the studies, a set of eight probes spaced concentrically in two tube sections (four probes per each) with a spacing of 0.015 m were used. The paper presents a theoretical description of the test method and the analysis of the measurement results for air-oil-water multiphase flow system. Results of this study indicate that the developed method of characterizing the voltage of the gas-liquid-liquid system can be an important tool supporting other methods to identify flow patterns, including visual observation.
Go to article

Abstract

A novel in-phase disposition (IPD) SPWM pulse allocation strategy applied to a cascaded H-bridge (CHB) converter is presented in this paper. The reason causing the power of the CHB converter imbalance is analyzed according to the traditional structure, the conception of power imbalance degree is introduced and the principle of the novel in-phase disposition SPWM allocation strategy is deduced in detail. The new pulse allocation scheme can ensure the power balance in 3/4 cycles through interchanging the PWM pulse sequence of the different CHB cell, meanwhile it makes the full advantage of the IPD control strategy, lower the total harmonic distortion (THD) of line voltage compared to a carrier phase shifted (CPS) control strategy, which is verified by theoretical derivation. A seven-level cascaded inverter composed by three H-bridge cells is taken as the exam- ple. The simulation and experiment is performed. The results indicate the validity of the analysis and verify the effectiveness of the proposed SPWM allocation strategy.
Go to article

Abstract

In Poland, researchers have a very strong interest in archaeometallurgy, which, as presented in classical works, focuses on dating artefacts from the prehistoric and early medieval periods in the form of cast iron and copper castings. This study, extending the current knowledge, presents the results of a microstructure investigation into the findings from the Modern era dating back to the late Middle Ages. The investigated material was an object in the form of a heavy solid copper block weighing several kilograms that was excavated by a team of Polish archaeologists working under the direction of Ms Iwona Młodkowska-Przepiórowska during works on the marketplace in the city of Czestochowa during the summer of 2009. Pre-dating of the material indicates the period of the seventeenth century AD. The solid copper block was delivered in the form of a part shaped like a bell, named later in this work as a “kettlebell”. To determine the microstructure, the structural components, chemical composition, and homogeneity, as well as additives and impurities, investigations were carried out using light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy including analysis of the chemical composition performed in micro-areas, and qualitative X-ray phase analysis in order to investigate the phase composition. Interpretation of the analytical results of the material’s microstructure will also help modify and/or develop new methodological assumptions to investigate further archaeometallurgical exhibits, throwing new light on and expanding the area of knowledge of the use and processing of seventeenth-century metallic materials.
Go to article

Abstract

In the paper, a feedforward linearization method for differential-pair operational transconductance amplifier (OTA) is discussed. The proposed technique is developed using simple differential pair transconductors and linear reference resistor. The concept leads not only to very efficient linearization ofa transfer characteristic oft he OTA but also others the possibility of effffective phase compensation. Due to this, the circuit can be used in applications requiring precise phase response (e.g. filters). SPICE simulations show that for the circuit working with a ±1.25V power supply, total harmonic distortion (THD) at 0.8Vpp is less then 0.1% in comparison to 10.2% without linearization. Moreover, the input voltage range ofline ar operation is increased. Power consumption oft he overall circuit is 0.94mW. The 3rd order elliptic filter example has been designed and simulated. It turns out that the proposed compensation scheme significantly improves the performance of the filter at higher frequencies.
Go to article

Abstract

Particles of the Fe-Al type (less than 50 µm in diameter) were sprayed onto the 045 steel substrate by means of the detonation method. The TEM, SAED and EDX analyses revealed that the Fe-Al particles have been partially melted in the experiment of coating formation. Particle undergone melting even within about 80% of its volume. Therefore, solidification of the melted part of particles was expected. Solidification differed significantly due to a large range of chemical composition of applied particles (from 15 at.% Al up to 63 at.% Al). A single particle containing 63 at.% Al was subjected to the detailed analysis, only. The TEM / SAED techniques revealed in the solidified part of particle three sub-layers: an amorphous phase, A ε , periodically situated FeAl + Fe2Al5 phases, and a non-equilibrium phase, Nε . A hypothesis dealing with the inter-metallic phases formation in such a single particle of the nominal composition 0 N = 0.63 is presented. At first, the solid / liquid system is treated as an interconnection: substrate liquid nonmelted particle part / / . Therefore, it is suggested that the solidification occurs simultaneously in two directions: towards a substrate and towards a non-melted part of particle. The solidification mechanism is referred to the Fe-Al meta-stable phase diagram. It is shown that the melted part of particle solidifies rapidly according to the phase diagram of meta-stable equilibrium and at a significant deviation from the thermodynamic equilibrium.
Go to article

Abstract

The present work offers new equations for phase evaluation in measurements. Several phase-shifting equations with an arbitrary but constant phase-shift between captured intensity signs are proposed. The equations are similarly derived as the so called Carré equation. The idea is to develop a generalization of the Carré equation that is not restricted to four images. Errors and random noise in the images cannot be eliminated, but the uncertainty due to their effects can be reduced by increasing the number of observations. An experimental analysis of the errors of the technique was made, as well as a detailed analysis of errors of the measurement. The advantages of the proposed equation are its precision in the measures taken, speed of processing and the immunity to noise in signs and images.
Go to article

Abstract

In the high-alloy, ferritic - austenitic (duplex) stainless steels high tendency to cracking, mainly hot-is induced by micro segregation processes and change of crystallization mechanism in its final stage. The article is a continuation of the problems presented in earlier papers [1 - 4]. In the range of high temperature cracking appear one mechanism a decohesion - intergranular however, depending on the chemical composition of the steel, various structural factors decide of the occurrence of hot cracking. The low-carbon and low-alloy cast steel casting hot cracking cause are type II sulphide, in high carbon tool cast steel secondary cementite mesh and / or ledeburite segregated at the grain solidified grains boundaries, in the case of Hadfield steel phosphorus - carbide eutectic, which carrier is iron-manganese and low solubility of phosphorus in high manganese matrix. In duplex cast steel the additional factor increasing the risk of cracking it is very "rich" chemical composition and related with it processes of precipitation of many secondary phases.
Go to article

Abstract

This article presents the results of investigations of the effect of heat treatment temperature on the content of the carbide phase of HS3-1-2 and HS6-5-2 low-alloy high-speed steel. Analysis of the phase composition of carbides is carried out using the diffraction method. It is determined that with increasing austenitising temperature, the intensification of dissolution of M6C carbide increases. As a result, an increase in the grain size of the austenite and the amount of retained austenite causes a significant reduction in the hardness of hardened steel HS3-1-2 to be observed. The results of diffraction investigations showed that M7C3 carbides containing mainly Cr and Fe carbides and M6C carbides containing mainly Mo and W carbides are dissolved during austenitisation. During austenitisation of HS3-1-2 steel, the silicon is transferred from the matrix to carbides, thus replacing carbide-forming elements. An increase in a degree of tempering leads to intensification of carbide separation and this process reduce the grindability of tested steels.
Go to article

Abstract

Directional solidification of the Fe - 4,3 wt % C alloy was performed with the pulling rate equal to v=83 μm/s. Sample was frozen during solidification to reveal the shape of the solid/liquid interface. Structures eutectic pyramid and spherolitic eutectic were observed. The solidification front of ledeburite eutectic was revealed. The leading phase was identified and defined.
Go to article

Abstract

In this paper, the author presents the possibility of using phase trajectory for detecting damage in an axial piston pump. The wear on main part of pump elements, such as the rotor and the valve plate, was investigated, and phase trajectories were determined based on vibration signal measured in three directions on the pump's body. In order to obtain a quantitative measure of the analyzed trajectory, the At_{p,i} parameter was introduced, and the relation between this parameter and the wear on the pump's parts was determined.
Go to article

Abstract

Monitoring of permanent stations that make up the reference frame is an integral part of the geodesists work. Selection of reference stations is based on analysis of parameters characterizing them (hardware, coordinates’ stability, mounting, location). In this paper, we took into account phase residual as an indicator of unmodelled signal. Phase residuals were computed based on ASG-EUPOS and EPN observation processing. The results show the connection between the method of mounting the antenna and the residuals. We have reviewed multipath effect at ASG-EUPOS stations, and chosen those which are characterized by the highest value of phase residual. The results show that LC phase residual is a good factor to characterize site’s solutions’ reliability. For majority of sites RMS values were less than 10 mm. Modulations associated with multipath effect were observed for few ASG-EUPOS sites only. Phase residuals are distributed specifically for sites, which antennas are mounted on pillars (more common for EPN sites). For majority of analysed sites phase residual distribution was similar for different days and did not depend directly on atmosphere condition.
Go to article

Abstract

Cu-Al-based high temperature shape memory alloys are preferred commonly due to their cheap costs and shape memory properties. In recent years, studies have been conducted on developing and producing a new type of Cu-Al based shape memory alloy. In this study, the CuAl-Cr alloy system, which has never been produced before, is investigated. After production, the SEMEDX measurements were made in order to determine the phases in the Cu84–xAl12Crx+4 (x = 0, 4, 6) (weight %) alloy system; and precipitate phases together with martensite phases were detected in the alloys. The confirmations of these phases were made via x-ray measurements. The same phases were observed by XRD diffractogram of the alloys as well. The values of transformation temperature of alloys were determined with Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) at 20°C/min heating rate. According to the DSC results, the transformation temperature of the alloys varies between 320°C and 350°C. This reveals that the alloys show high temperature shape memory characteristics.
Go to article

Abstract

The paper presents the analysis of temperature fields, phase transformations, strains and stresses in a cuboidal element made from S235 steel, surfaced with multipass GMA (Gas Metal Arc) method. The temperature field is described assuming a dualdistribution heat source model and summing up the temperature fields induced by the padded weld and by the electric arc. Dependence of stresses on strains is assumed on the basis of tensile curves of particular structures, taking into account the influence of temperature. The calculations were carried out on the example of five welds in the middle of the plate made of S235 steel. The simulation results are illustrated in graphs of thermal cycles, volume shares of structural components and stresses at the selected points of cross-section, and the temperature and strain distributions in the whole cross section.
Go to article

Abstract

Microwave sintering process was employed to agglomerate ferromanganese alloy powders. The effects of sintering temperature, holding time and particle size composition on the properties and microstructure of sintering products were investigated. The results was shown that increasing sintering temperature or holding time appropriately is beneficial to increase the compressive strength and volume density. SEM and EDAX analysis shows that the liquid phase formed below the melting point in the sintering process, which leads to densification. XRD patterns indicate that the main reaction during microwave sintering is the decarbonization and carburization of iron carbide phase. The experiment demonstrate that the optimum microwave sintering process condition is 1150°C, 10 min and 50% content of the powders with the size of –75 μm
Go to article

Abstract

In the present article, we introduced a new model of the equations of general ized thermoelasticity for unbounded orthotropic body containing a cylindrical cavity. We applied this model in the context of generalized thermoelasticity with phase-lags under the effect of rotation. In this case, the thermal conductivity of the material is considered to be variable. In addition, the cylinder surface is traction free and subjected to a uniform unit step temperature. Using the Laplace transform technique, the distributions of the temperature, displacement, radial stress and hoop stress are determined. A detailed analysis of the effects of rotation, phase-lags and the variability thermal conductivity parameters on the studied fields is discussed. Numerical results for the studied fields are illustrated graphically in the presence and absence of rotation.
Go to article

This page uses 'cookies'. Learn more