Optimization of dialysis needs methods for quantitative assessment of fluid and solutes transport in body compartments and solute and fluid exchange between body and dialysate. A mathematical model describing the dynamics of these quantities during dialysis is presented. This model is first and foremost based on the existing models, but also includes some new solutions. All parts were combined and extended by the detailed descriptions of selected aspects. The virtual patient model was applied to simulate and test different methods of treatment and their influence on the condition of the patient. The purpose of this model is to serve as a decision support system for selection of optimal treatment options for particular patient.
Multidimensional, variety of saving memories ways in landscape is visible in creation of commemorative spaces. These meaning is strictly connected with the most important events and persons in history of the country. Authors of article in their research are concentrated on commemorative space with monuments example in Poland and the world presence in landscape design meaning. They are announced by landscape analysis methods to recognition of structure, meaning and phenomena of chosen objects in genius loci categories. In Study of Conditions and Directions of Space Development Capital City of Warsaw is found the record that “commemorative resource” is not enough examined and protected. The aim of elaboration is indication of tendencies in aspects of location, space relations and meanings of memory places.
The paper refers to earlier publications of the author, on identification of properties of thermomechanical, chemically hardened core/mold sands. In that earlier period, first version of the original DMA apparatus, produced by a Polish company Multiserw-Morek, was used. The Hot Distortion (HD) study results, published by the author in 2008, referred to phenomena accompanying a thermal shock in real conditions of thermal interaction of a liquid alloy on a mold, in reference to a shock possible to obtain in laboratory conditions, without use of liquid alloy as a heat source, with analysis of solutions applied in the DMA apparatus. This paper presents author’s observations on testing a new, innovative version of the LRu-DMA apparatus, containing a module allowing the Hot Distortion (HD) study. Temperature of specimens achieved in the case of the gas burner heating reaches values definitely above 800°C on the heated side and 610°C on the other side. Using an electric radiator, with maximal temperature of 900°C allows obtaining temperatures in between 225-300°C.
The article presents changes in the thickness and duration of the ice cover found in the restored anthropogenic water reservoir of Pławniowice. It also defines the role the ice cover plays in the formation of the reservoir limnological cycle. Characteristic and significant changeability of the ice cover thickness and duration was observed. The changes in the ice cover demonstrate that they are cyclical but not regular. The ice cover did not always form in the analyzed period. It happened twice, i.e. in 1988 and 2007 (a gap of 20 years). The longest lake freezing period lasted 119 days. Changes in the ice cover duration also show certain periodicity. The shortest periods occurred approx. every 7 years. Maximum values of the ice cover thickness ranged between 10 and 52 cm. There is a relation between the ice cover thickness and its duration period. The rate of increase in the ice cover thickness varied between 0.296 and 3.6 cm/d. The hypolimnion removal impact on the ice cover duration period and thickness was not observed. On the other hand, the ice cover duration period affects the spring circulation duration. Thus, it has an influence on the oxygen balance of the limnic ecosystem.
Professor Piotr Pierański, an outstanding Polish physicists, excellent researcher and brilliant lecturer, passed away on the 23rd February 2018. The article quotes some recollections of his numerous friends and coworkers wordwide.
An algorithm of determination of mechanical stresses and deformations of the magnetic circuit shape, caused by forces of magnetic origin, is presented in this paper. The mechanical stresses cause changes of magnetizing characteristics of the magnetic circuit. The mutual coupling of magnetic and mechanical fields was taken into account in the algorithm worked out. A computational experiment showed that it was possible to include the interaction of both fields into one numerical model. The elaborated algorithm, taking into account the impact of mechanical stresses on magnetic parameters of construction materials, can be used in both the 2D and the 3D type field-model.
In the paper the problem of modelling thermal properties of semiconductor devices with the use of compact models is presented. This class of models is defined and their development over the past dozens of years is described. Possibilities of modelling thermal phenomena both in discrete semiconductor devices, monolithic integrated circuits, power modules and selected electronic circuits are presented. The problem of the usefulness range of compact thermal models in the analysis of electronic elements and circuits is discussed on the basis of investigations performed in Gdynia Maritime University.
The development of digital signal processors and the increase in their computing capabilities bring opportunities to employ algorithms with multiple variable parameters in active noise control systems. Of particular interest are the algorithms based on artificial neural networks. This paper presents an active noise control algorithm based on a neural network and a nonlinear input-output system identification model. The purpose of the algorithm is an active noise control system with a nonlinear primary path. The algorithm uses the NARMAX system identification model. The neural network employed in the proposed algorithm is a multilayer perceptron. The error backpropagation rule with adaptive learning rate is employed to update the weight of the neural network. The performance of the proposed algorithm has been tested by numerical simulations. Results for narrow-band input signals and nonlinear primary path are presented below.
Nonlinear phenomena of the planar and quasi-planar magnetoacoustic waves are considered. We focus on deriving of equations which govern nonlinear excitation of the non-wave motions by the intense sound in initially static gaseous plasma. The plasma is treated as an ideal gas with finite electrical conductivity permeated by a magnetic field orthogonal to the trajectories of gas particles. This introduces dispersion of a flow. Magnetoacoustic heating and streaming in the field of periodic and aperiodic magnetoacoustic perturbations are discussed, as well as generation of the magnetic perturbations by sound. Two cases, corresponding to magnetosound perturbations of low and high frequencies, are considered in detail.
In the paper, the mathematical model of coupled electromagnetic and thermal phenomena in the pulse transformer taking into account the magnetic hysteresis is presented. For the mapping of magnetic hysteresis, Jiles-Atherton model is applied. In order to solve field equations, the finite element method (FEM), "step-by-step" procedure and Newton-Raphson algorithm are used. Software elaborated on this basis is used for analysis of hysteresis loss in the core. Selected results of investigations are shown.
The paper presents the special software for transient FE analysis of coupled electromagnetic-thermal problems in a squirrel cage submerged motor working at cryogenic temperature. A time-stepping finite element method and transients analysis of an induction motor has been applied. The non-linearity of the magnetic circuit, the movement of the rotor, skewed slots, and the influence of temperature on electric and thermal properties of the materials has been taken into account. Developed on the basis of presented algorithm a computer program used to analyze the phenomenon of current displacement in the rotor bars of high-voltage cage induction motor working in cryogenic conditions. The results of the simulations are presented.
The paper presents an FE model of coupled electromagnetic and thermal phenomena in Line Start Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors (LSPMSMs). An algorithm for solving equations of a discrete model using the FEM has been presented. On the basis of this algorithm the author’s personally developed software for the analysis of coupled electromagnetic-thermal phenomena in the LSPMS motors was elaborated. This software was used to analyze the start-up process of motors with identical stator and rotor magnetic circuits and different materials of the starting cage. The start-up process of motors with the squirrel-cage made of aluminum and copper was considered. The influence of temperature on the start-up process has been taken into account. The results of simulation tests were compared with the results of measurements.