Senecavirus A (SVA) the only member of the Senecavirus genus within the Picornaviridae family, is an emerging pathogen causing swine idiopathic vesicular disease and epidemic transient neonatal losses. Here, SVA strain (CH-HNKZ-2017) was isolated from a swine farm exhibiting vesicular disease in Henan Province of Central China. A phylogenetic analysis based on complete genome sequence indicated that CH-HNKZ-2017 was closely related to US-15-40381IA, indica- ting that a new SVA isolate had emerged in China.
Bacteria from the Simkaniaceae family are intracellular parasites belonging to the Chlamydiales order, detected in surface waters, drinking water, chlorine water, and in wastewater. Its main representative, Simkania negevensis, is pathogenic to humans and animals, especially fishes, as it principally causes respiratory tract diseases. Bacteria from this family are also capable of surviving and existing in free-living amoebas, omnipresent in the natural environment, which makes them an additional risk for human and animal health. The aim of the present study was to search for representatives of this family in freshwaters from the Odra River and two municipal lakes (Rusałka and Goplana). Out of 100 water samples analysed, the sequence of bacteria of Simkaniaceae family was found just in 1 percent, because phylogenetic analysis revealed that the obtained OdraWCh30 sequence shows 93% similarity to Simkania negevensis strain Z as well as 87% similarity to Candidatus Syngnamydia salmonis isolate Ho-2008 and Candidatus Syngnamydia salmonis isolate VS10102006 and 84-85% similarity to endosymbiont of Xenoturbella westbladi, Simkaniaceae bacterium clone SM081012-5s and Candidatus Syngnamydia venezia strain Pi3-2. This is the first case of detecting sequence of bacteria of Simkaniaceae family in the aquatic environment in Poland.
The purpose of the study was to analyze a part of the nucleotide sequences of ystB gene Y. enterocolitica strains isolated from wild animals. The material for the study consists of 30 Y. enterocolitica biotype 1A strains obtained from different wild animal species and belonging to different genotypes. Phylogenetic analysis of ystB nucleotide sequences belonging to four regular genotypes G1, G2, G3, G4 and to five groups of variations V1, V2, V3, V4, V5 revealed significant differences of Y. enterocolitica strains isolated from wild animals. The most phylogenetically distant were strains belonging to V5.
The present report describes the new occurrence of Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) in cabbage, bean and Malva neglecta plants in Iran. In this study, sequence analyses of a partial RNA dependent RNA polymerases (RdRp) and complete movement protein (MP) and the coat protein (CP) nucleotide sequences of three new ToMV isolates collected from major crop fields in Iran revealed low genetic variation of RdRp gene compared to the CP and MP genes. The different topologies of the phylogenetic trees constructed, using available open reading frame (ORF1), ORF2 and ORF3 sequences from ToMV isolates, indicated different evolutionary constraints in these genomic regions. Statistical analysis also revealed that with the exception of CP other tested ToMV genes were under negative selection and the RdRp gene was under the strongest constraints. According to the phylogenetic tree it can be inferred from the nucleotide sequences of the complete CP and MP genes, that isolates from Iran and Egypt formed separate groups, irrespective of host origin. However, isolates clustered into groups with correlation to geographic origin but not the host. Analysis of the Ks *, Z* and Snn values also indicated genetic differentiation between ToMV populations. The Tajima’s D, Fu and Li’s statistical values were significantly negative for the RdRp gene of the Asian population which suggests the sudden expansion of ToMV in Asia. Taken together, the results indicate that negative selection and genetic drift were important evolutionary factors driving the genetic diversification of ToMV.
The present review aims to improve the scope and coverage of the phylogenetic matrices currently in use, as well as explore some aspects of the relationships among Paleogene penguins, using two key skeletal elements, the humerus and tarsometatarsus. These bones are extremely important for phylogenetic analyses based on fossils because they are commonly found solid specimens, often selected as holo− and paratypes of fossil taxa. The resulting dataset includes 25 new characters, making a total of 75 characters, along with eight previously uncoded taxa for a total of 48. The incorporation and analysis of this corrected subset of morphological characters raise some interesting questions considering the relationships among Paleogene penguins, particularly regarding the possible existence of two separate clades including Palaeeudyptes and Paraptenodytes , the monophyly of Platydyptes and Paraptenodytes , and the position of Anthropornis . Additionally, Notodyptes wimani is here recovered in the same collapsed node as Archaeospheniscus and not within Delphinornis, as in former analyses.
Canine distemper virus (CDV) infects wild and domestic Canidae worldwide. The hemag- glutinin (H) gene has the highest genetic variation in the genome of this virus. Thus, the H gene is commonly used for lineage identification and genetic analyses. In order to study the genetic characteristics and pathogenicity of CDV strains prevalent in China, 132 samples were collected from domestic dogs with suspected CDV infection, 58 samples were confirmed to be positive, and the H gene was successfully amplified from 15 samples. The epidemic strain was identified as type Asia-1 and the novel mutations, A51T, V58I, R179K and D262N, were detected in this strain. Isolated strains, BJ16B53, BJ16B14, and BJ17B8, were used for an animal infection experiment in raccoon dogs. BJ16B53 and BJ16B14 were found to cause clinical symptoms, death, and exten- sive lesions in various organs. These results are expected to facilitate the development of effective strategies to monitor and control CDV infection in China.
We determined the level of flavonoids, citric acid and ascorbic acid in hips of rose species from the Caninae section occurring in Poland. We performed phytochemical analyses of 75 samples representing 11 species: Rosaagrestis Savi, R. canina L., R. dumalis Bechst., R. glauca Pourret, R. inodora Fries, R. jundzillii Besser, R. rubiginosa L., R. sherardii Davies, R. tomentosa Sm., R. villosa L. and R. zalana Wiesb. Flavonoid content was determined spectrophotometrically, and organic acid concentrations by HPLC. The content of the studied compounds varied greatly. Interspecific differences in the amount of flavonoids and ascorbic acid were highly significant. The most common species, Rosa canina, showed low average content of vitamin C (0.51 g/100 g of dry matter) and flavonoids (41 mg/100 g DM) and high content of citric acid (3.48 g/100 g DM). Ascorbic acid was highest in R. villosa hips (avg. 2.25 g/100 g DM), flavonoids were highest in R. rubiginosa (72 mg/100 g DM), and citric acid was highest in R. tomentosa (4.34 g/100 g DM). Flavonoid level correlated negatively with the amount of citric acid (r=-0.47, p<0.001). Cluster analysis of rose species based on the content of the investigated compounds confirmed the validity of the division of sect. Caninae into three subsections: Rubiginosae, Vestitae and Rubrifoliae. The phytochemical variation of these roses reflects their probable phylogenetic relationships as determined from morphology.
Despite the considerable progress that has recently been made in medicine, the treatment of viral infections is still a problem remaining to be solved. This especially concerns infections caused by newly emerging patogenes such as: human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis C virus or SARS-coronavirus. There are several lines of evidence that the unusual genetic polymorphism of these viruses is responsible for the observed therapeutic difficulties. In order to determine whether some parameters describing a very complex and variable viral population can be used as prognostic factors during antiviral treatment computational methods were applied. To this end, the structure of the viral population and virus evolution in the organisms of two patients suffering from chronic hepatitis C were analyzed. Here we demonstrated that phylogenetic trees and Hamming distances best reflect the differences between virus populations present in the organisms of patients who responded positively and negatively to the applied therapy. Interestingly, the obtained results suggest that based on the elaborated method of virus population analysis one can predict the final outcome of the treatment even before it has started.