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Number of results: 4
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Abstract

Several species of Solanum produce secondary metabolites with antimicrobial activity. In the present study, the inhibitory activity of Solanum chrysotrichum, S. erianthum, S. torvum and S. rostratum against phytopathogenic Curvularia lunata was determined. Methanol extracts from roots, stems, leaves and fruits were evaluated by the method of mycelial inhibition on agar and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined on a liquid medium. To increase the antimicrobial activity, the combined activity of the most active extracts for each phytopathogen was also determined (a combination of intra and interspecies extracts). The results showed that 12 of the 16 methanolic extracts of Solanum species had antifungal effects against C. lunata. The extracts of S. rostratum and S. erianthum developed the highest activity (~80% inhibition and 28.4 MIC μg . ml–1), even, equal to or greater than, the reference fungicide. The mixture of the active extracts of S. chrysotrichum and S. torvum increased their activity. Various extracts affected the macro and microscopic morphology and most of them reduced the number of conidia of the fungus. This resulted in the capacity to control the vegetative growth and reproduction of C. lunata, the causal fungus of corn leaf spot disease.
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Abstract

The tuber necrotic strain of Potato virus Y (PVYNTN) causes widespread disease and has severe negative effects on the growth and yields of plants, especially those of the Solanaceae family. The consequences of residual toxicity and non-biodegradation of synthetic chemicals and pollution of the environment has led to investigations into new non-toxic and biological treatments to control plant viral diseases. Ethanolic extracts of Bowiea volubilis (bulbs), Cotyledon orbiculata (leaves), Gomphocarpus fruticosus (leaves), Merwilla plumbea (dry and fresh bulbs), Nerium oleander (leaves), and the fruits and leaves of Strophanthus speciosus, were evaluated against PVYNTN in vivo and in vitro. At a concentration of 20 mg · ml−1, ethanolic extracts of Strophanthus speciosus (leaves) and fruits (50 mg · ml−1) significantly reduced the expression of PVYNTN symptoms on tobacco plants in vitro without affecting the normal growth and development of the plant. Similarly, at 50 mg · ml−1, N. oleander, C. orbiculata and B. volubilis (fresh bulbs) and S. speciousus leaves at 20 mg · ml−1 extracts showed significant differences in PVYNTN symptoms in the in vivo experiment. Strophanthus speciosus leaf and fruit extracts showed significant inhibition in the in vitro and in vivo assays and demonstrated that S. speciosus has potential to be used as an antiphytoviral treatment.
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Abstract

Despite many phytochemical and pharmacological investigations, to date, there are no reports concerning the antibabesial activity of extracts of A. millefolium against B. canis. This study was aimed at investigating the biological activities of A. millefolium against the Babesia canis parasite and to identify its chemical ingredients. The water (WE), ethanol (EE) and hexane/acetone (H/AE) extracts of plant aerial parts were screened for total phenolic content (TPC), total flavo- noid compound (TFC), DPPH free radical-scavenging activity and its antibabesial activity assay. In this study, imidocarb diproprionate was used as a positive control. The H/AE and EE extracts were analysed using gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy (GC–MS). In the EE extract, the main compounds were 17.64% methyl octadec-9-ynoate, 16.68% stigmast-5-en-3-ol(3α,24S) and 15.17% hexadecanoic acid. In the H/AE extract, the main com- pounds were 34.55% 11-decyldocosane, 14.31% N-tetratetracontane, 8.22% β-caryophyllene, and 7.69% N-nonacosane. Extract of EE contained the highest content of phenolics followed by H/AE and WE. The concentration of flavonoids in EE, H/AE and WE extracts showed that TFC was higher in the EE samples followed by H/AE and WE. The antioxidant activities were highest for AA, followed by EE, WE and H/AE. The antibabesial assay showed that the WE, EE and H/AE extracts of A. millefolium were antagonistic to B. canis. At a 2 mg/mL concentration, it showed 58.7% (± 4.7%), 62.3% (± 5.5%) and 49.3% (± 5.1%) inhibitory rate in an antibabesial assay, respectively. Considering these results, the present findings suggest that A. millefolium extracts may be a potential therapeutic agent and that additional studies including in vivo experiments are essential.
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Abstract

The free-living Acanthamoeba sp. causes various diseases. Treatment of them is very difficult and not always effective because of encystation, making it highly resistant to antiamoebic drugs. Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli, and an yeast Candida albicans also exhibit outstanding resistance to antimicrobial substances. The search for new natural amoebicidal and antimicrobial agents of plant origin is still of current interest. The aim of the study was to investigate the amoebicidal activity of the extracts obtained from tissue culture and a field-grown plant of Chaenomeles japonica against pathogenic trophozoites of Acanthamoeba spp. and antimicrobial effect against S. aureus, E. coli, and C. albicans. The extracts of C. japonica had an inhibitory effect on the proliferation of Acanthamoeba trophozoites as compared to the non-treated control. Among the crude extracts tested, the extract of leaves, from both shoot culture and the field-grown plant had remarkable amoebicidal action against the trophozoites but also antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus. The extract from leaves from shoot culture, already on the second and third days of treatment, showed an antiamoebicidal effect at a concentration of 1 mg mL-1 (inhibition of trophozoites 87.5% and 91.8%, respectively). In addition to leaves from shoot culture (a conc. 5 mg mL-1, 2nd day inhibition of trophozoites 85.7% and 3rd day 97.2%), leaves from a field-grown plant (a conc. 5 mg mL-1, 2nd day 91.0% and 3rd day 94.4%) and callus (a conc. 5 mg mL-1, 2nd day 90.0% and 3rd day – 95.4%) also exhibited a good antiamoebicidal activity. Out of the four extracts, the extracts from leaves from both shoot culture and a field-grown plant were reported to be the most active against Gram-positive S. aureus, which was determined by the values of MIC = 5.0 mg mL-1 and MIC = 2.5 mg mL-1, respectively. The inhibitory potential depends on the yield and composition of mainly bioactive compounds: pentacyclic terpenoids (mainly betulinic, ursolic, and oleanolic acids) and polyphenols (mainly chlorogenic acid and its isomers, epicatechin, dimeric, and trimeric proanthocyanidins, quercetin and kaempferol derivatives).
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