The paper presents plant communities from northern Wedel Jarlsberg Land. 55 species of vascular plants were described in this region. Differentiation of plant communities is discussed as controlled by habitat conditions. Plant succession in intramorainal zones of Renardbreen and Scottbreen has been also considered.
The contents of copper, manganese, zinc, lead and cadmium have been determined in plants of the Spitsbergen tundra, collected at Calypsostranda, Lyellstranda and Chamberlindalen in 1987. Five species of vascular plants, four species of mosses and fourteen species of lichens have been investigated. Manganese content in all the studied plants falls in the physiological limits of this element. Appreciable concentrations of copper, and zinc exceeding the physiological concentrations of these elements and presence of lead and cadmium have been shown for many plants.
In the years 1987-1995 studies were carried out on the content of Cu, Mn, Zn, Pb and Cd in plants and soil in the Bellsund area, Western Spitsbergen. For the studies the author used predominating species of vascular plants, bryophytes and lichens collected from beaches littoral planes, valleys, slopes and mountain peaks. Some plant species, largely bryophytes and lichens, were shown to contain increased amounts of Zn, Pb and Cd, whilst in others Cu deficiency was found. This paper is summing up studies concerning the content of Cu, Mn, Zn, Pb and Cd in plants of Western Spitsbergen, which were conducted over many years.
This paper recapitulates Polish botanical and mycological research on terrestrial and freshwater Antarctic ecosystems carried out between 1977 and 2009. The main results are briefly summarized. The references encompass nearly 200 papers on floristics, taxonomy, biogeography, ecology, cytology, bioc hemistry, physiology and genetics of lichens, mosses, fungi, algae and vascular plants inhabiting soils, rocks and inland waters in the Antarctic.
The article presents the results of research which describes antagonism between Pb-Zn in selected plant species from the area of Czestochowa – Mirow district (north-western part of the Czestochowa Upland). There were analyzed changes in the ratio of Pb/Zn in different organs of the tested plants as a function of the Zn content changes. The content of metals in the plants and the soil was determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometry AAS. In all organs of the plants there was observed antagonistic decrease of Pb uptake and accumulation, resulting from the increase in the concentration Zn. Antagonism between Zn and Pb in roots of the tested plants occurred at Zn content of 200–600 μg/g. In turn, antagonism in stems and flowers occurred at lower contents of zinc (100–180 μg/g). In leaves, antagonism between Pb and Zn occurred when Zn was present at the level of 300–800 μg/g. Ex definition of the analyses confirm the presence of antagonism of lead with regard to high levels of Zn. The study also confirmed that the degree of antagonism depends on the plant species.
This paper contains the results of phytosociological studies carried out on the model fragment of Spitsbergen tundra at Bellsund. In the area of 4800 m2 19 plant communities have been distinguished through association analysis and these communities, in turn, have been compared according to cluster analysis. Also, ecological groups of species have been distinguished.
Despite many phytochemical and pharmacological investigations, to date, there are no reports concerning the antibabesial activity of extracts of A. millefolium against B. canis. This study was aimed at investigating the biological activities of A. millefolium against the Babesia canis parasite and to identify its chemical ingredients. The water (WE), ethanol (EE) and hexane/acetone (H/AE) extracts of plant aerial parts were screened for total phenolic content (TPC), total flavo- noid compound (TFC), DPPH free radical-scavenging activity and its antibabesial activity assay. In this study, imidocarb diproprionate was used as a positive control. The H/AE and EE extracts were analysed using gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy (GC–MS). In the EE extract, the main compounds were 17.64% methyl octadec-9-ynoate, 16.68% stigmast-5-en-3-ol(3α,24S) and 15.17% hexadecanoic acid. In the H/AE extract, the main com- pounds were 34.55% 11-decyldocosane, 14.31% N-tetratetracontane, 8.22% β-caryophyllene, and 7.69% N-nonacosane. Extract of EE contained the highest content of phenolics followed by H/AE and WE. The concentration of flavonoids in EE, H/AE and WE extracts showed that TFC was higher in the EE samples followed by H/AE and WE. The antioxidant activities were highest for AA, followed by EE, WE and H/AE. The antibabesial assay showed that the WE, EE and H/AE extracts of A. millefolium were antagonistic to B. canis. At a 2 mg/mL concentration, it showed 58.7% (± 4.7%), 62.3% (± 5.5%) and 49.3% (± 5.1%) inhibitory rate in an antibabesial assay, respectively. Considering these results, the present findings suggest that A. millefolium extracts may be a potential therapeutic agent and that additional studies including in vivo experiments are essential.
The pace of climate change observed since the beginning of the industrial era has prompted scientists to seriously consider whether human activity is to blame for global warming. On the geological timescale, however, climate change is certainly nothing new or exceptional – as is clear when one looks at the record of plant and animal fossils.
In the paper the parallel compensator considered in  is applied to control of the plants with delay and compared with Smith predictor. It is noted that Smith predictor removes only the delay, while the parallel compensator also changes the dynamics of the replacement plant; the latter may be in some degree of freedom shaped by the designer. Owing to this the transients of the system with parallel compensator are significantly faster. Accounting implementability, the control saturations are introduced in control algorithms. Additionally it is shown that using parallel compensator we may apply a relay control to the plants with delay and nonminimum phase zeros, which is impossible by using Smith predictor. Several results of simulations are described which confirm these observations.
The investigation was carried out on forest soils collected from areas subject to variable pollution. The fraction of strontium was analyzed in soil samples from north-eastern Poland (Borki forest division), treated as a non-polluted region (natural background) and in soil samples from central (Rogów forest division) and south-western Poland (Świerklaniec forest division). The sequential extraction procedure was applied in this study to separate the fractions of strontium. Five fractions were analyzed in every genetic horizon according to the Tessier method. The concentration of strontium was also analyzed in the plants. Both results were compared in order to evaluate the mobility and bioavailability of the trace elements in the environment. The content, distribution and bioavailability of the strontium fractions were investigated with particular emphasis on the contaminated study sites. Total content of strontium in surface horizons depended on the localization. Among analysed fractions strontium, in organic soil horizons, regardless of localization, occurred predominantly in mobile fractions in all examined soils.
The paper presents an analysis of the sustainable development of electricity generation sources in the National Power System (NPS). The criteria to be met by sustainable power systems were determined. The paper delineates the power balance of centrally dispatched power generation units (CDPGU), which is required for the secure work of the NPS until 2035. 19 prospective electricity generation technologies were defined. They were divided into the following three groups: system power plants, large and medium combined heat and power (CHP) plants, as well as small power plants and CHP plants (distributed sources). The quantities to characterize the energy effectiveness and CO2 emission of the energy generation technologies analyzed were determined. The unit electricity generation costs, discounted for 2018, including the costs of CO2 emission allowance, were determined for the particular technologies. The roadmap of the sustainable development of the generation sources in the NPS between 2020 and 2035 was proposed. The results of the calculations and analyses were presented in tables and figure
The article analyzes the risk factors related to the energy use of alternative fuels from waste. The essence of risk and its impact on economic activity in the area of waste management were discussed. Then, a risk assessment, on the example of waste fractions used for the production of alternative fuel, was carried out. In addition, the benefits for the society and the environment from the processing of alternative fuels for energy purposes, including, among others: reducing the cost of waste disposal, limiting the negative impact on water, soil and air, reducing the amount of waste deposited, acquisition of land; reduction of the greenhouse effect, facilitating the recycling of other fractions, recovery of electricity and heat, and saving conventional energy carriers, were determined. The analysis of risk factors is carried out separately for plants processing waste for alternative fuel production and plants producing energy from this type of fuel. Waste processing plants should pay attention to investment, market (price, interest rate, and currency), business climate, political, and legal risks, as well as weather, seasonal, logistic, technological, and loss of profitability or bankruptcy risks. Similar risks are observed in the case of energy companies, as they operate in the same external environment. Moreover, internal risks may be similar; however, the specific nature of the operation of each enterprise should be taken into account. Energy companies should pay particular attention to the various types of costs that may threaten the stability of operation, especially in the case of regulated energy prices. The risk associated with the inadequate quality of the supplied and stored fuels is important. This risk may disrupt the technological process and reduce the plant’s operational efficiency. Heating plants and combined heat and power plants should also not underestimate the non-catastrophic weather risk, which may lead to a decrease in heat demand and a reduction in business revenues. A comprehensive approach to risk should protect enterprises against possible losses due to various types of threats, including both external and internal threats.
The paper presents the results of the design analysis and experimental investigations of the microturbine set consisting of the microturbine with partial admission and permanent magnet generator. The microturbine was designed for operation with the vapour of ethanol as a working fluid. Microturbine unit was tested for different parameters of the working fluid and varying the electrical load. The examples and the comparison between experiment results and numerical simulations are shown and discussed in the paper.
The rapidly changing Arctic provides excellent opportunities for investigating primary succession on freshly deglaciated areas. Research on the Gåsbreen foreland (S Spitsbergen) traced the succession of particular groups of organisms and species, particularly lichens and bryophytes, and determined the effect of selected abiotic factors on this succession. Fieldwork in 2008, employed a continuous linear transect of phytosociological relevés (1 m2) along the foreland. Data analysis allowed to distinguish five different succession stages and three types of colonisers. Canonical correspondence analysis and a permutation test showed that distance from the front of the glacier and fine grain material in the substrate mostly influenced the distribution and abundance of vegetation, and the steepness of the moraine hills affected the colonisation process, mainly in the older part of the marginal zone.
The ability to grow clonally is generally considered important for plants in Arctic regions but analyses of clonal characteristics are lacking for entire plant communities. To fill this gap, we assessed the clonal growth of 78 plant species in the Petuniabukta region, central Spitsbergen (Svalbard), and analyzed the clonal and other life−history traits in the regional flora and plant communities with respect to environmental gradients. We distinguished five categories of clonal growth organs: perennial main roots produced by non− clonal plants, epigeogenous rhizomes, hypogeogenous rhizomes, bulbils, and stolons. Clonal growth differed among communities of the Petuniabukta region: non−clonal plants prevailed in open, early−successional communities, but clonal plants prevailed in wetlands. While the occurrence of plants with epigeogenous rhizomes was unrelated to stoniness or slope, the occurrence of plants with hypogeogenous rhizomes diminished with increasing stoniness of the substratum. Although the overall proportion of clonal plants in the flora of the Petuniabukta region was comparable to that of central Europe, the flora of the Petuniabukta region had fewer types of clonal growth organs, a slower rate of lateral spread, and a different proportion of the two types of rhizomes.
Cd and Pb concentrations were measured in water, sediment and plant organs collected from selective sites located along the Bogdanka river (Poznań, Poland) in the 2012 growing season. The aim of the investigations was to monitor changes in heavy metal (HM) concentrations in different media over the periods, as well as to evaluate potential of two littoral plants, Phragmites australis and Typha angustifolia, for phytoremediation under natural conditions. Investigations revealed differences in HM concentrations in water and sediments. Higher values were observed in sediments than in water. The decrease in concentrations of both HMs in sediments was noted in two of the three selected water reservoirs during growing seasons, which suggests the possibility of their adsorption and accumulation by aquatic plants. Both investigated plant species accumulated ample amount of Cd and Pb in underground and aboveground plant tissues, however T. angustifolia revealed higher Cd translocation potential than P. australis. The latter revealed higher Pb accumulation in two lakes. Moreover, the translocation ratio was usually higher in spring, especially for Pb, in both plant species. Increasing level of pollution load index in sediment along the Bogdanka watercourse indicates accumulation of measured HMs.
Heavy metal (As, Mn, Ni, Sn, Ti) concentrations were determined in soil and plant samples collected in different areas of the railway junction Iława Główna, Poland. Soil and plant samples were collected in four functional parts of the junction, i.e. the loading ramp, main track within the platform area, rolling stock cleaning bay and the railway siding. Four plant species occurring in relatively higher abundance were selected for heavy metals analysis, although in the loading ramp and platform areas only one species could be collected in the amount which makes chemical analysis possible. The selected species included three perennials (Daucus carota, Pastinaca sativa and Taraxacum officinale) and one annual plant (Sonchus oleraceus). The entire area of the railway junction showed elevated concentrations of heavy metals when compared to the control level. It was most pronounced for the platform area and railway siding. The concentration of arsenic, manganese and nickel in plants growing in these parts of the junction exceeded the toxic level. The highest contamination of soil and plants found in the platform area suggested advanced emission process of the analyzed metals from wheel and track abrasion. Literature review showed that the concentration of the investigated metals in soil was generally higher than that found in centers of cities and along traffic roads proving that the railway is an important linear source of soil contamination
For a very long period of time, Polish waste management was based mainly on landfilling at landfills, which had a negative impact on the surrounding environment. The EU requirements for the Member States have led to a revolution in Polish legislation on waste management and local governments have become responsible for creating local waste management systems that will affect the achievement of EU targets. One of the solutions undertaken by several municipalities is the construction and operation of a municipal waste thermal treatment installation, which not only reduced the amount of waste deposited, but also supported the local power industry by generating electricity and heat. The emission standards for installations producing energy from waste, as in the case of conventional power plants and combined heat and power plants, are very strict, therefore, the continuous monitoring of emitted pollutants is carried out, and waste gas treatment systems are developed based on the best available techniques (BAT). The article presents emission standards applicable to waste incineration plants, including duties in the field of the environment, as well as issues related to the installation as a source of energy. In addition, the currently functioning waste incineration plants in Poland have been briefly characterized, and development plans in this area in the country have been described.
The large variability and unpredictability of energy production from photovoltaic power microinstallations results from the dependence on the current weather conditions. These conditions depend on a number of factors and are variable over the time. Despite this specificity, photovoltaic micro-installations are becoming more and more popular in the world and in Poland. This is mainly due to the fact that the generation of energy from renewable sources has numerous advantages, the energy is free, renewable in time and ecological, and its production on its own gives partial independence from energy supplies from the power grid. In addition, the observed significant prices decrease of solar modules has further accelerated the development of the use of this energy source. Concern for this method of energy production among households has increased significantly in Poland after introducing the prosumer in the legal framework and the use of administrative and financial support. The implemented prosumer mechanisms allowed, for example, the net balancing of the energy consumed and produced by the micro-installation through storage in the power grid. The article describes the problem of balancing sources using solar energy, based on micro-installation used in the household (the so-called prosumer installation). The conducted analyses compared the load profile of a typical household and the energy generation profile from a photovoltaic installation, determining the real balancing formation level of such a system.
The problem of deposit protection and the process of liquidation of mining plants does not find effective solutions in the national law. Nevertheless, this is a very up-to-date issue. This situation prompted the authors of the article to once again analyze these issues. The number of abandoned exploitation sites which were published in the Polish Geological Institute reports should affect the entire licensing system and the state’s raw material policy. As a good host of raw materials, which we have been given by Earth Mother, we cannot allow that the mining licensing system, the liquidation procedures of mining plants without due diligence, result in the lack of protection of these deposits. The rational raw material economy and the ability to exploit it for the future generations, while failing to effectively enforce the site liquidation process makes it necessary to take actions leading to not blocking the mineral deposits in this way. The analysis shows what appropriate actions should be taken. The authors have thoroughly investigated the legal regulations over the past century, compiling them with the current legislation, and pointing out the weaknesses of the system in the field of deposits protection, particularly in the part of the unexploited deposits. Criticism covered both the statutory regulations – Geological and mining law as well as executive acts in the field of deposit protection. A separate analysis was subjected to the procedure of liquidation of the mining plants in the aspect of deposits protection, for mining plants operating on the basis of the Province Marshal’s licenses. The process presented in the flowchart layout clearly shows the weak points of the currently operating system.
We discus legal status of plants obtained using NBT: whether they are to be treated as GMOs or not. The conclusion may have a negative impact on the development of research on them and their practical use. The problem of the application of provisions on GMOs in relation to the products of some of the NBT has been the subject of the decision of the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) in Case C-528/16 – this topic is analyzed in details.
Using renewable energy sources for electricity production is based on the processing of primary energy occurring in the form of sun, wind etc., into electrical energy. Economic viability using those sources in small power plants strongly depends on the support system, based mainly on financial instruments. Micro-installations, by using special instruments dedicated to the prosumer market may become more and more interesting not only in terms of environmental energy, but also financial independence. In the paper, the term hybrid power plant is understood to mean a production unit generating electricity or electricity and heat in the process of energy production, in which two or more renewable energy sources or energy sources other than renewable sources are used. The combination of the two energy sources is to their mutual complementarity, to ensure the continuity of the electricity supply. The ideal situation would be if both sources of energy included in the hybrid power plant continuously covered the total demand for energy consumers. Unfortunately, due to the short-term and long-term variability of weather conditions, such a balance is unattainable. The paper assesses the possibility of balancing the hybrid power plant in daily and monthly periods. Basic types of power plants and hybrid components and system support micro-installations were characterized. The support system is based particularly on a system of feed-in tariffs and the possibility of obtaining a preferential loan with a subsidy (redemption of part of the loan size). Then, an analysis of energy and economic efficiency for a standard set of hybrid micro-installations consisting of a wind turbine and photovoltaic panels with a total power of 5 kW, were presented. Fourteen variants of financing, economic efficiency compared with the use of the method of the simple payback period were assumed.
Rare and endemic plant species represent important components of plant biodiversity which require protection to ensure their sustainable conservation. Cerastium banaticum (Rochel) Heuff. is such an endemic and rare species from Romania, for which the genetic variability of two natural populations was studied by SSR markers. Shannon’s information index revealed low levels of genetic diversity in both populations (I = 0.296). As the first attempt in a conservation program a reproducible micropropagation protocol was established starting from seeds, followed by multiplication, rooting, and ex vitro acclimatization. Among the various plant growth regulators tested the highest multiplication coefficient was achieved on a culture medium with 0.5 mg L-1 6-furfurylaminopurine (K) and 1 mg L-1 α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). On this PGRs concentration a number of 26.6 shoots/individual explant with a mean length of 7.9 cm for new generated shoots was registered. The highest number of roots/individual initiated shoot was 2.6 and it was recorded on a culture medium with 0.5 mg L-1 2-isopentyl-adenine (2iP) and 0.1 mg L-1 NAA. The outdoor acclimatization was successfully performed in a specially designed rocky area in the ‘Alexandru Borza’ Botanical Garden, Cluj-Napoca (Romania).
Globally more than 5.2 billion hectares of farming fields are damaged through erosion, salinity and soil deterioration. Many salt stress tolerant bacteria have plant growth promoting (PGP) characteristics that can be used to overcome environmental stresses. Isolation and screening of salt-tolerant endophytes from Salicornia brachiata were achieved through surface sterilization of leaves followed by cultivation on 4% NaCl amended media. Performance of isolates towards indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) production, phosphate solubilization, ACC deaminase activity, ammonia production, siderophore production and stress tolerance were determined. On the basis of the highest plant growth promoting activity, SbCT4 and SbCT7 isolates were tested for plant growth promotion with wheat and maize crops. In the present study, a total of 12 morphologically distinct salt-tolerant endophytic bacteria was cultured. Out of 12 isolates, 42% of salt-tolerant endophytes showed phosphate solubilization, 67% IAA production, 33% ACC-deaminase activity, 92% siderophore production, 41.6% ammonia production and 66% HCN production. A dendrogram, generated on the basis of stress tolerance, showed two clusters, each including five isolates. The bacterial isolates SbCT4 and SbCT7 showed the highest stress tolerance, and stood separately as an independent branch. Bacterial isolates increased wheat shoot and root dry weights by 60–82% and 50–100%, respectively. Similarly, improved results were obtained with maize shoot (27–150%) and root (80–126%) dry weights. For the first time from this plant the bacterial isolates were identified as Paenibacillus polymyxa SbCT4 and Bacillus subtilis SbCT7 based on phenotypic features and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Paenibacillus polymyxa SbCT4 and B. subtilis SbCT7 significantly improved plant growth compared to non-inoculated trials.
Rice blast is one of the most destructive rice diseases known to cause considerable yield losses globally. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are closely associated with rice plants and improve plant growth and health. To determine how isolated bacteria trigger rice growth, an assessment of phosphate solubilization and auxin production mechanisms was carried out in vitro and in vivo. In this study, the interactions between PGPR and Rhizophagus irregularis were evaluated in wildtype and CYCLOPS mutant plants to provide a sustainable solution against blast disease and reduce the amount of yield loss. Importantly, Bacillus subtilis UTSP40 and Pseudomonas fluorescens UTSP50 exhibited a suppressive effect on AMF colonization which shows the probable existence of a functional competition between AMF and PGPR to dominate the rhizosphere. On the other hand, R. irregularis decreased the biocontrol activity of B. subtilis UTSP40 in wild type, although this reduction was not significant in mutant plants. Results showed that the same defense-related genes were induced in the roots of wild type colonized by B. subtilis UTSP40 and R. irregularis. Therefore, plant cell programs may be shared during root colonization by these two groups of beneficial microorganisms.