In this text are shown the chosen specific manifestations of rhetoric used by NCN experts in the evaluation of grant applications. The subject of analysis are the phrases and expressions contained in the opinions of requests in competitions FUGA (national competitions for internships after obtaining a doctoral degree, postdoc position), which are characterized by ambiguity and commonness. Makes it difficult to incorporate them in re-applying for the grant. Moreover, some of them express patronize attitudes towards potential applicants and their advisors. As an example one could present an expression: „as for pedagogue she has a good achievements”.
The article attempts to reach the elements that control the efforts of constituting a specific type of vision of the past, with which — as I believe — we are dealing in the contemporary public discourse about history.
The work is devoted to the analysis of quite rare kind of wedding speeches occurring in a ceremony of the part of Vologda province in the end 19th – early 20th century. The author considers features of functioning of the text in a wedding ceremony, national terminology, the territory of distribution, poetic features, a ratio of all-Russian and regional components in the texts. It is shown that by means of these texts the party of the bride implicitly declared about her physical and emotional preparedness for marriage because the themes of female physical beauty, health, portliness, youth, fertility, complaisance, etc. are emphasized in these texts.
The object of our deliberations is structuralism in literary studies, whose beginnings in Poland can be traced back to the thirties of the 20th century. It was developing at two centres at the time: at the Stefan Batory University in Vilnius, around Professor Manfred Kridl, and at the University of Warsaw. Structuralism was reborn in Poland in the sixties and it impacted all of literary studies; its main centres were: the Institute of Literary Research of the Polish Academy of Sciences and the Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań. Focusing on the analysis of literary systems, it combined them with theory of text and interpretation of individual works, emphasizing their broadly understood linguistic, discursive and rhetorical properties. In the culmination stage of its advancement, it tackled the fundamental problems of our discipline, including those that were only starting to emerge, such as reception of literary works as intended by its structural properties, or intertextuality. Structuralism had (and still has) a strong impact on the entirety of literary studies in Poland. It also became a sphere of reference for researchers of the younger generation, who prefer newer methodological tendencies.