NHST (null hypothesis significance testing) is the most popular statistical paradigm in psychology. Mistakes in interpretation of its assumptions and their consequences are topic for methodological and statistical discussion for over fifty years. Article presents two problems associated with NHST that are particularly prevalent in psychology: identifying non-significant results with research failure and conducting underpowered research. They can contribute to increase in exploiting questionable research practices in order to obtain desirable, significant outcomes. Three practices: p-hacking, HARKing and selective publishing are described, along with analysis of their impact on replication crisis in psychological science.
Artykuł jest próbą analizy dyskursu przestrzenno-pedagogicznego na gruncie niemieckiej pedagogiki społecznej. Stanowi wycinek rozważań na temat zmiany w paradygmacie myślenia o miejscu/przestrzeni (spatial turn), jako kategoriach pedagogicznych. Autorki szukają odpowiedzi na pytanie, czym jest przestrzeń i miejsce oraz jakimi pojęciami w zakresie refleksji nad miejscem/przestrzenią operuje niemiecka pedagogika społeczna. Tekst przybliża między innymi relacyjną koncepcję przestrzeni Martiny Löw, jej dwuznaczność oraz pojęcie spacingu. Aktywne wytwarzanie przestrzeni miejskiej oraz przestrzenny wymiar relacji i jego dynamika poddane są dyskusji. Artykuł prezentuje również głosy krytyczne, dotyczące między innymi transdyscyplinarności przestrzeni oraz pracy socjalnej zorientowanej na przestrzeń socjalną. Stanowi zachętę do pogłębionych, międzynarodowych analiz teorii przestrzenno-pedagogicznych.
W prezentowanym opracowaniu zostały ukazane problemy samoświadomości i możliwości jej rozwoju. W tym kontekście została określona także koncepcje samooceny, szacunku dla samego siebie, uznania dla siebie, rozpoznawania siebie, pewności siebie i samorealizacji. W tekście podkreślono, że samoświadomość wiąże się ze świadomością własnej tożsamości psychofizycznej i społecznej – ja sam i świat oraz moje miejsce w nim. Ważnym środkiem do rozwoju zdrowej samoświadomości jest również uznanie. W podsumowaniu artykułu zwrócono uwagę na higienę psychiczną jako zapobieganie niepowodzeniom rozwojowym.
A new method for computation of positive realizations of given transfer matrices of fractional linear continuous-time linear systems is proposed. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of positive realizations of transfer matrices are given. A procedure for computation of the positive realizations is proposed and illustrated by examples.
This study presents a possibility of detecting wear of a valve plate in multi-piston axial pump based on time-frequency analysis of measured signals. Short-time Fourier transform STFT and the generalized Wigner-Ville algorithm WVD were used for this purpose. The tests were carried out on a multi-piston axial pump with swinging plate, in which the worn valve plates were mounted. Valve plate wear was related with the formation of flow micro-channels between the pump suction hole and its pumping hole on the plate transition zone surface. The developed channels initiate flow of the operational fluid, the results of which is lack of leak-tightness between suction and pumping zones, associated with a decrease in operational pressure and drop in general efficiency.
A new class of positive fractional 2D hybrid linear systems is introduced. The solution of the hybrid system is derived. The classical Cayley-Hamilton theorem is extended for fractional 2D hybrid systems. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the positivity are established.
A new concept (notion) of the practical stability of positive fractional discrete-time linear systems is introduced. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the practical stability of the positive fractional systems are established. It is shown that the positive fractional systems are practically unstable if corresponding standard positive fractional systems are asymptotically unstable.
The concept of strong stability is extended for positive and compartmental linear systems. It is shown that: 1) the asymptotically stable positive and compartmental systems are strongly stable if the eigenvalues of the system matrix are distinct, 2) electrical circuits consisting of resistances, capacitances (inductances) and source voltages are strongly stable.
New tests (criterions) for checking the reachability and the observability of positive linear-discrete-time systems are proposed. The tests do not need checking of rank conditions of the reachability and observability matrices of the systems. Simple sufficient conditions for the unreachability and unobservability of the systems are also established.
A new notion of a realization of transfer matrix of (P;Q; V)-cone-system for discrete-time linear systems is proposed. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of the realizations are established. A procedure is proposed for computation of a realization of a given proper transfer matrix T(z) of (P;Q; V)-cone-system. It is shown that there exists a realization of T(z) of (P;Q; V)-cone-system if and only if there exists a positive realization of T(z) = V T(z)Q!1, where V;Q and P are non-singular matrices generating the cones V;Q and P respectively.
The minimum energy control problem for the positive descriptor discrete-time linear systems with bounded inputs by the use of Weierstrass-Kronecker decomposition is formulated and solved. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the positivity and reachability of descriptor discrete-time linear systems are given. Conditions for the existence of solution and procedure for computation of optimal input and the minimal value of the performance index is proposed and illustrated by a numerical example.
Simple new necessary and sufficient conditions for asymptotic stability of the positive linear discrete-time systems with delays in states are established. It is shown that asymptotic stability of the system is equivalent to asymptotic stability of the corresponding positive discrete-time system without delays of the same size. The considerations are illustrated by numerical examples.
Spectral properties of nonnegative and Metzler matrices are considered. The conditions for existence of Metzler spectrum in dynamical systems have been established. An electric RL and GC ladder-network is presented as an example of dynamical Metzler system. The suitable conditions for parameters of these electrical networks are formulated. Numerical calculations were done in MATLAB.
Simple necessary and sufficient conditions for robust stability of the positive linear discrete-time systems with delays with linear uncertainty structure in two cases: 1) unity rank uncertainty structure, 2) non-negative perturbation matrices, are established. The proposed conditions are compared with the suitable conditions for the standard systems. The considerations are illustrated by numerical examples.
Background: Pet therapy could help individuals improve their emotions; and physical and mental health. It also could be effective in the treatment of pain, anxiety, depression, and fatigue. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of pet therapy, concurrent with common medication on positive, negative, cognitive and motor symptoms of schizophrenia. Methods: This was a randomized control trial. Statistical population of the current study included all patients who were admitted to the Razi Psychiatric Center of Tehran and received a diagnosis of schizophrenia based on a clinical interview and DSM criteria by a psychiatrist. Thirty six patients were recruited using snowball sampling. Members of the experimental group were transported by a bus to that spot at 9 a.m on the planned days, in the company of the researcher and a nurse. Patients gave care of the rabbits (including feeding, tidying their cages, moving their cages) for 24 sessions of 90 minutes, three days per week during autumn 2016. The One-way covariance test was also used to evaluate effects of Pet therapy on positive, negative, cognitive and motor symptoms of schizophrenia. Results: finding indicated that considering scores of pre-test for positive, negative and cognitive symptoms, there is a significant difference between the two controls and experimental groups, respectively, (F = 17.04, p < 0.05), (F = 17.39, p < 0.05), (F = 152.12, p < 0.05). Conclusion: Pet therapy could be successfully applied by parents, psychologists and care givers of these patients. We suggest using pet therapy for treatment of other psychiatric disorders as well and preferably like dogs and cats.