This article examines some aspects of a broader theme indicated in the title with respect to the diptych Tyrtaeus: A Tragedy and Behind the Scenes: A Fantastic Tale. While the present analysis is based on the fi ndings of earlier critics, it develops various parallels suggested by the use of musical motifs in Norwid’s twin dramas. Those associations act as an aid to a better understanding of the differences between the attitudes and ideas presented in the plays. Moreover, by indirectly marking the contrasts of truth and falsehood, they hold the key to the moral interpretation of the plays. The overall pattern of the musical references and associations in Tyrtaeus and Behind the Scenes appears to refl ect Norwid’s organic philosophy and his idea of creative originality. Finally, the purported pushing of Tyrtaeus off a cliff, an episode symbolizing the rejection of the right path, is analyzed along two similar poetic images of Norwid’s, Aesop’s fall into an abyss (On Freedom of Speech) and the hurling of Chopin’s piano out of the window (‘Chopin’s Piano’).
The article aims to analyse the context in which the phrase “historical truth” is present in the Polish public discourse regarding recent history. The author intends to show the ways and aims of the usage of historical truth in the competition to obtain and maintain power. Referring to the assumptions of the Web 2.0. paradigm, in the conclusion the author puts forward the thesis that the historical truths present in the public sphere do not only attempt to answer social expectations of what historical truth Poles need but they are also co-created by potential recipients.
The main goal of this article is to characterise and compare some aspects of Hilary Putnam’s referential theory of meaning and Robert B. Brandom’s inferential theory of meaning. I will do it to indicate some similarities and differences in these theories. It will provide an opportunity for a deeper understanding of these theories and for a more adequate evaluation of how they describe and explain the process of meaning acquisition of linguistic expressions. In his theory of meaning Putnam emphasises the importance of reference understood as a relationship which connects linguistic expressions and extra-linguistic (empirical) reality. Brandom acknowledges inference as a main category useful in characterising the meaning of expressions used in premises and a conclusion of inference. But his theory of meaning is criticised for minimalising the role of an empirical component (demonstratives etc.). He tries to defend his standpoint in the anaphoric theory of reference. Putnam like Brandom claimed that we – as cognitive subjects – are not in a situation in which we learn about the extra-linguistic reality in a direct way. It is the reality itself as well as our cognitive apparatus that play a role in a cognitive process.