Ectopic pregnancy constitutes 2% of all pregnancies. In the last decades, due to the rising amount of caesarean sections, new localization of ectopic pregnancy has been observed — caesarean scar pregnancy (CSP). Cesarean scar pregnancy is an iatrogenic disease and a life-threatening condition which frequency will systematically rise. Because of possible serious complications, CSP should be swift ly diagnosed and treated. Th e purpose of this retrospective study was to demonstrate diff erent methods of CSP treatment performed between 2015–2018 in the Clinic of Endocrinological Gynaecology and Gynaecology Jagiellonian University Medical College in Cracow. Th e clinical characteristics, diagnosis, various methods of treatment and clinical outcomes were analysed. Defi nitive algorithm of CSP treatment is still not established. Pharmacological and operative methods are approved while expectant observation is considered unsafe due to possible risk of complications for the patient, including death.
This study analysed the influence of montelukast (MON; 10-8 - 10-4 M), a cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 1 (CysLTR1) antagonist, on the contractility of the porcine uterine smooth muscle in the luteal phase of the oesterous cycle (n=8) and in early pregnancy (n=8). Stimulation of uterine strips in the luteal phase with MON has been shown to significantly reduce the amplitude of con- tractions, but not to affect the tension or frequency of contractions. A statistically significant tension increase and decrease in the frequency and amplitude of contractions was observed in pigs in early pregnancy. This suggests that MON has a different effect on the parameters under study in cyclic and pregnant pigs.
Early embryonic death (EED) is one of the causes of infertility in the mare. We compared endometrial environment in 9 mares with EED and 13 mares in diestrus phase. Cotton swab (CS), cytobrush (CB) and uterine biopsy (B) samples were obtained for the cytological, bacteriological and histopathological examinations. In the first step we compared CS and CB methods to biopsy as a reference method, as B revealed the highest number of positive results in cytological and bacteriological examinations in both groups. In turn, we also compared cytological, bacteri- ological and histopathological findings between EED and control animals using the B sampling. Although the differences between these groups were not statistically significant (p≥0.05), there was a tendency to a higher prevalence of subclinical endometritis in the control group, than in the EED group (62% vs 22%). In general, positive bacteriological results were similar in both groups (62% vs 55%), whereas positive cytological results were higher in the control group (62% vs 22%; p≥0.05). In histopathological examination in EED mares endometrial degeneration was better expressed (all mares were with grades IIB and III on the Kenney-Doig scale); however, the differences between both groups were not statistically significant (p≥0.05). We could not confirm a clear difference in uterine environment between the two groups. Moreover, the uterine biopsy seemed to be the most reasonable sampling method for diagnosis of endometrial state.