In the paper, the variation of the intensity of the geomagnetic field force is analysed in time and space. For the research, the data from measurements of the intensity of the geomagnetic field force at four airports (Kaunas, Klaip˙eda, Palanga andVilnius) and 6 geomagnetic field repeat stations aswell as the data from Belsk Magnetometric Observatory (Poland) were used. For the data analysis, the theory of covariance functions was applied. The estimates of the cross-covariance functions of the measured intensity of the geomagnetic field force or the estimates of auto-covariance functions of single data were calculated according to the random functions created from the force intensity measurement data arrays. The estimates of covariance functions were calculated upon varying the quantization interval on the time scale and applying the software created using Matlab package of procedures. The impact of radars of airports on the intensity of geomagnetic field variation and on changes of their covariance functions was established.
Time domain analysis is used to determine whether A/D converters that employ higher order sigma-delta modulators, widely used in digital acoustic systems, have superior performance over classical synchronous A/D converters with modulators of first order when taking into account their important metrological property which is the magnitude of the quantization error. It is shown that the quantization errors of delta-sigma A/D converters with higher order modulators are exactly on the same level as for converters with a first order modulator.
The paper describes the construction, operation and test results of three most popular interpolators from a viewpoint of time-interval (TI) measurement systems consisting of many tapped-delay lines (TDLs) and registering pulses of a wide-range changeable intensity. The comparison criteria include the maximum intensity of registered time stamps (TSs), the dependency of interpolator characteristic on the registered TSs’ intensity, the need of using either two counters or a mutually-complementing pair counter-register for extending a measurement range, the need of calculating offsets between TDL inputs and the dependency of a resolution increase on the number of used TDL segments. This work also contains conclusions about a range of applications, usefulness and methods of employing each described TI interpolator. The presented experimental results bring new facts that can be used by the designers who implement precise time delays in the field-programmable gate arrays (FPGA).
This paper deals with the amplitude estimation in the frequency domain of low-level sine waves, i.e. sine waves spanning a small number of quantization steps of an analog-to-digital converter. This is a quite common condition for high-speed low-resolution converters. A digitized sine wave is transformed into the frequency domain through the discrete Fourier transform. The error in the amplitude estimate is treated as a random variable since the offset and the phase of the sine wave are usually unknown. Therefore, the estimate is characterized by its standard deviation. The proposed model evaluates properly such a standard deviation by treating the quantization with a Fourier series approach. On the other hand, it is shown that the conventional noise model of quantization would lead to a large underestimation of the error standard deviation. The effects of measurement parameters, such as the number of samples and a kind of the time window, are also investigated. Finally, a threshold for the additive noise is provided as the boundary for validity of the two quantization models
Digital speech copyright protection and forgery identification are the prevalent issues in our advancing digital world. In speech forgery, voiced part of the speech signal is copied and pasted to a specific location which alters the meaning of the speech signal. Watermarking can be used to safe guard the copyrights of the owner. To detect copy-move forgeries a transform domain watermarking method is proposed. In the proposed method, watermarking is achieved through Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) and Quantization Index Modulation (QIM) rule. Hash bits are also inserted in watermarked voice segments to detect Copy-Move Forgery (CMF) in speech signals. Proposed method is evaluated on two databases and achieved good imperceptibility. It exhibits robustness in detecting the watermark and forgeries against signal processing attacks such as resample, low-pass filtering, jittering, compression and cropping. The proposed work contributes for forensics analysis in speech signals. This proposed work also compared with the some of the state-of-art methods.
The aim of this work is to present problems related to tinnitus symptoms, its pathogenesis, hypotheses on tinnitus causes, and therapy treatment to reduce or mask the phantom noise. In addition, the hypothesis on the existence of parasitic quantization that accompanies hearing loss has been recalled. Moreover, the paper describes a study carried out by the Authors with the application of high-frequency dither having specially formed spectral characteristics. Discussion on preliminary results obtained and conclusions are also contained.