The state of development, the existing and emerging forms of development, the intensity and legibility of settlement systems, all this is essential for the living conditions of urban residents, their surroundings and peripheral systems. The purpose of the article is to assess the accessibility to market and public services by estimating the distance to these services from housing facilities in Poland. The use of the residential dispersion ratio (RDR) and an analysis of the spatial distribution of municipalities with the highest values of the coefficient allows to identify areas where accessibility to public and market services is weak.
Coal is a naturally occurring solid fuel used, among others, for heating and for electricity production. Despite the development of the gas and heating network in our country, as well as the growing interest in the use of renewable energy sources, it still remains the most frequent fuel burned in local sources for the production of thermal energy. The article describes actual heating coal demand in the municipal and residential sector, with the distinction of different assortments, depending on the solid fuel heating source applied. Moreover, a subjective list of factors that have a key impact on the change in heating coal demand for this market was presented, taking the regulatory environment, global trends in housing heating and statistical surveys on the preferences for individual heat sources replacement into account. The confrontation of observed phenomena allowed for possible scenarios of changes in the demand for heating coal with the prospect until 2030, broken down into its individual assortments to be elaborated.