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Abstrakt

The article discusses the issue of proper names defined as symptoms of culture. The first part is of a theoretical character and develops the theory of symptomatology of culture in the context of semiotics (Ch. Peirce), psychology and psychoanalysis (S. Freud and J. Lacan), and onomastics. Symptomatology of culture is a practice of interpreting a certain group of texts of culture and extracting common qualitative traits within them. This is especially in the case of those traits specific to them and often encountered, which could testify to particular serious and deeply-rooted social phenomena leading to their appearance. In the empirical part the author presents a way of using (onymic) symptomatology in practice to research modern culture. She uses the examples of popular psychological and auto-therapeutic guidebooks and treats them as linguistic symptomatic forms of the most significant linguistic and cultural phenomena along with their social causes and functions which are often dysfunctional or abnormal in character. The analysis comprises the most typical conceptual and syntactic constructions encountered in the group.
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Abstrakt

Semiotics is the study of how signs are interpreted as references, and names are an obvious type of sign. Semiotics may therefore be considered a useful approach to all types of name study — whether personal names, place names, commercial names, or literary names. As described by C. S. Peirce, an act of reference consists of a sign (e.g., a word, word part, road sign, emblem, or simply a finger) and a referent (e.g., an object, conceptual model, or analytic definition). Furthermore, all acts of reference reflect one or more of three basic types of relationships: 1) similarity, 2) one-to-one correspondence, and/or 3) arbitrary convention. If a sign is interpreted as similar to a referent, it functions iconically. If it is interpreted as a designation or as caused by the referent, it functions indexically. If it is interpreted as referring to two or more indexical referents, it evokes related qualities and thereby functions symbolically. The primary interpretation of names is indexical. However, the purpose of this paper is to show how names, as signs, are also interpreted iconically and symbolically, even at the same time. Different types of names will be used to illustrate these semiotic functions.
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Nauka | 2017 | No 4 | 197–206

Abstrakt

Professor Jerzy Pelc was the creator and long-time manager of the Department of Logical Semiotics, University of Warsaw. He also founded the Polish Society of Semiotics. He published six own books, among others Studies in Functional Logical Semiotics of Natural Language (1971; in English); he edited also dozens of volumes of Semiotic Studies and Library of Semiotic Thought. As Kotarbiński, his master, and Twardowski, the master of his master, Professor Pelc was a radical rationalist. This radical rationalism has linked him to atheism, anti-communism, a distance to politics, and a frown on the falsehood of public life. He was a great patriot – in his life and in his work. He considered himself a successor of the Lvov-Warsaw School tradition. In the field of metaphysics, Professor Pelc combined theoretical minimalism with anti-rationalist attitudes, including the postulate of precision and the requirement of criticism. The main field of his interest was logical – and broader: theoretical – semiotics. He advocated and largely developed the functional concept of signs. To traditional paradigms of research: historical, teleological, causal and prognostic ones – Professor Pelc has added a semiotic paradigm, determined by the question “What does it mean that p?”. Referring to the interdisciplinary fashion for interdisciplinary research, he conducted an analysis of the notion of INTERDISCIPLINARITY. In ontology, he analyzed the notions of OBJECT and CAUSALITY. In his approach, aesthetics was treated form a semiotic point of view: he sought mainly ways to logically rewrite its terminology. In particular, he reconstructed the main aesthetic notions: FORM and IDEOLOGY (of literary works), THEME, MOTIVE, METAPHOR and (literary) FICTION – as well as semiotic notions essential to the description of literary arts, namely the notions of ASSERTION and INTENSIONALITY. In the field of ethics, Professor Pelc declared himself as an advocate of the ideal of trustworthy guardian, which he took over from his teacher, Kotarbiński. In metaethics, he analyzed the notions of NORM, EVALUATION and HUMANITY. A master of Polish: beautiful Polish – he was certainly a true humanist.
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Abstrakt

The object of our deliberations is structuralism in literary studies, whose beginnings in Poland can be traced back to the thirties of the 20th century. It was developing at two centres at the time: at the Stefan Batory University in Vilnius, around Professor Manfred Kridl, and at the University of Warsaw. Structuralism was reborn in Poland in the sixties and it impacted all of literary studies; its main centres were: the Institute of Literary Research of the Polish Academy of Sciences and the Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań. Focusing on the analysis of literary systems, it combined them with theory of text and interpretation of individual works, emphasizing their broadly understood linguistic, discursive and rhetorical properties. In the culmination stage of its advancement, it tackled the fundamental problems of our discipline, including those that were only starting to emerge, such as reception of literary works as intended by its structural properties, or intertextuality. Structuralism had (and still has) a strong impact on the entirety of literary studies in Poland. It also became a sphere of reference for researchers of the younger generation, who prefer newer methodological tendencies.
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Abstrakt

Marylin Diptych by Warhol consists of twenty-five brightly coloured pictures on the left and the twenty-five black and white ones on the right. Since Western cultures typically conceptualise space in terms of directional metaphors LEFT IS THE BEGINNING and RIGHT IS THE END, the common interpretation is that the colourful images represent Marylin’s life with the greyish ones corresponding to her death. One way of clearing some doubts concerning this interpretation of the work is to assume that the painter used reverse perspective, which he most probably knew from the art of the Byzantine icon.
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Abstrakt

Artykuł podejmuje problematykę pedagogiki miejsca, ze szczególnym naciskiem na kontekst miejski. Bazując na zasadniczych tezach, iż miasto jest tekstem (Władymir Toporow), a miejsca są pedagogiczne (Maria Mendel) – koncentruje się na problematyce symbolu. Zarówno definicja pojęcia, jak i jego poszczególnych egzemplifikacji stanowi bazę teoretyczną do dalszych rozważań o charakterze praktycznym. Przybliżając metodologię zrealizowanego w latach 2015–2016 projektu badawczego Czytanie miasta, autorka prezentuje nowe wyzwania badawcze dla pedagogów. Przedstawienie szerokiej kafeterii symbolicznej miast – obejmującej zarówno obszar manifestacji kulturowych (wieże, mosty), jak sferę natury (góra, rzeka) – prowadzi do propozycji ich aplikacji edukacyjnych. Podsumowanie tekstu stanowią opisy zrealizowanych animacji opartych na badaniach.
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