Control of the technological processes of coal enrichment takes place in the presence of wide disturbances. Thus, one of the basic tasks of the coal enrichment process control systems is the stabilization of coal quality parameters at a preset level. An important problem is the choice of the controller which is robust for a variety of disturbances. The tuning of the controller parameters is no less important in the control process . Many methods of tuning the controller use the dynamic characteristics of the controlled process (dynamic model of the controlled object). Based on many studies it was found that the dynamics of many processes of coal enrichment can be represented by a dynamic model with properties of the inertial element with a time delay. The identification of object parameters (including the time constant) in industrial conditions is usually performed during normal operation (with the influence of disturbances) from this reason, determined parameters of the dynamic model may differ from the parameters of the actual process. The control system with controller parameters tuned on the basis of such a model may not satisfy the assumed control quality requirements. In the paper, the analysis of the influence of changes in object model parameters in the course of the controlled value has been carried out. Research on the controller settings calculated according to parameters T and τ were carried out on objects with other parameter values. In the studies, a sensitivity analysis method was used. The sensitivity analysis for the three methods of tuning the PI controller for the coal enrichment processes control systems characterized by dynamic properties of the inertial element with time delay has been presented. Considerations are performed at various parameters of the object on the basis of the response of the control system for a constant value of set point. The assessment of considered tuning methods based on selected indices of control quality have been implemented.
The object of the present study is to investigate the influence of damping uncertainty and statistical correlation on the dynamic response of structures with random damping parameters in the neighbourhood of a resonant frequency. A Non-Linear Statistical model (NLSM) is successfully demonstrated to predict the probabilistic response of an industrial building structure with correlated random damping. A practical computational technique to generate first and second-order sensitivity derivatives is presented and the validity of the predicted statistical moments is checked by traditional Monte Carlo simulation. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the NLSM to estimate uncertainty propagation in structural dynamics. In addition, it is demonstrated that the uncertainty in damping indeed influences the system response with the effects being more pronounced for lightly damped structures, higher variability and higher statistical correlation of damping parameters.
The study deals with stability and dynamic problems in bar structures using a probabilistic approach. Structural design parameters are defined as deterministic values and also as random variables, which are not correlated. The criterion of structural failure is expressed by the condition of non-exceeding the admissible load multiplier and condition of non-exceeding the admissible vertical displacement. The Hasofer-Lind index was used as a reliability measure. The primary research tool is the FORM method. In order to verify the correctness of the calculations Monte Carlo and Importance Sampling methods were used. The sensitivity of the reliability index to the random variables was defined. The limit state function is not an explicit function of random variables. This dependence was determined using a numerical procedure, e.g. the finite element methods. The paper aims to present the communication between the STAND reliability analysis program and the KRATA and MES3D external FE programs.
The present study aimed to determine the role of job components and individual parameters on the raised blood pressure among male workers of textile industry who were exposed to continuous high noise level. Information of all eligible subjects including demographic and individual characteristics, medical history and job characteristics were obtained by direct interview and referring to the medical records. All blood pressure measurements were done using mercury sphygmomanometer in the morning before work. The 8-hours equivalent A-weighted sound pressure level, the level of blood cholesterol and triglyceride, and noise annoyance was determined for each worker. As the result of weighted regression in path analysis (direct effect), only the work shift did not have a significant effect on blood pressure among the studied variables. It can be seen that variables including the level of triglyceride, cholesterol, and noise exposure have the most direct effects on blood pressure. The results of total effects showed that variables, including using the hearing protection device, age, work experience and visibility of sound source, did not have a significant effect on blood pressure. The results of this study indicate that occupational noise exposure alone and combined with other job components and individual parameters is associated with raised blood pressure. However, noise exposure was probably a stronger stressor for increased blood pressure.
The paper presents the properties of a strain sensor, which was made using the micro hole collapse method and operates in the configuration of a Mach-Zehnder modal interferometer with a PM-1550-01 polarization maintaining photonic crystal fibre. The sensor’s transfer curve was determined analytically. Its strain sensitivity, determined from measurements, decreases slightly with increasing wavelength and is in a range from 2:01 to 2:23 pm/me in the wavelength range 1520–1580 nm. Based on the Fourier analysis of the wavelength spectrum of the constructed sensor, the difference of the group refractive indices of the core and the cladding of the photonic crystal fibre was determined, which are in a range from 7:45#1;103 to 1:01#1;102. The temperature sensitivity of the sensor, determined on the basis of measurements performed in a range from 23 to 60◦C, is positive and equals 5.9 pm/K.
The influence of ambient solar UV-A or UV-B radiation on growth responses was investigated in three varieties of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) after exclusion of solar UV-A/B radiation: JK-35, IH-63 and Khandwa-2. Cotton plants were grown from seeds in UV-exclusion chambers lined with selective UV filters to exclude either UV-B (280-315 nm) or UV-A/B (280-400 nm) from the solar spectrum under field conditions. Excluding UV-B and UV-A/B significantly increased plant height, leaf area and dry weight accumulation in all three varieties of cotton. The varieties differed considerably in their sensitivity to ambient UV-A/B. Khandwa-2 was most sensitive and JK-35 least sensitive to ambient solar UV. We monitored the activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbic acid peroxidase (APX), glutathione reductase (GR) and guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), as well as the level of the antioxidant ascorbic acid (ASA), in primary leaves of the most UV-sensitive variety (Khandwa-2). The level of UV-B-absorbing substances was significantly decreased by exclusion of solar UV-B and UV-A/B. Exclusion of solar UV decreased the activity of all the antioxidant enzymes monitored and the level of ascorbic acid versus control plants (+UV-A/B) grown under filters transparent to solar UV. Reduction of the antioxidant defense after UV exclusion indicates that ambient solar UV exerts significant stress and induces some reactive oxygen species to accumulate, which in turn retards the growth and development of cotton plants. Ambient solar UV stresses cotton plants, shifting their metabolism towards defense against solar UV. Exclusion of solar UV eliminates the need for that defense and leads to enhancement of primary metabolism.
Inverse boundary problem for cylindrical geometry and unsteady heat conduction equation was solved in this paper. This solution was presented in a convolution form. Integration of the convolution was made assuming the distribution of temperature T on the integration interval (ti, ti+ Δt) in the form T (x, t) = T (x, ti) Θ + T (z, ti+ Δt) (1 - Θ), where Θ ϵ (0,1). The influence of value of the parameter Θ on the sensitivity of the solution to the inverse problem was analysed. The sensitivity of the solution was examined using the SVD decomposition of the matrix A of the inverse problem and by analysing its singular values. An influence of the thermocouple installation error and stochastic error of temperature measurement as well as the parameter Θ on the error of temperature distribution on the edge of the cylinder was examined.
Neonatal sepsis, defi ned as sepsis occurring within the fi rst 28 days of life, is associated with signifi cant morbidity and mortality. It is undeniable that fi nding and appliance of biomarkers in clinical practice is of great importance, aiming at the early recognition of the impending clinical deterioration and the prompt and targeted therapeutic intervention. Aft er systematic and thorough research of the limited relevant literature, we attempt to present a documented point-of-view on the diagnostic value of TREM-1 and its soluble form both in early and late onset neonatal sepsis.
In this paper, the sensitivity analysis of the elliptic filters realized by using biquadratic structures was carried out. The influence of spread the structure parameter values on the shape of the frequency characteristic of the filter transmittance modulus was analyzed. The analysis was limited to the case of even order low-pass filter. Defining the proper class of the sensitivity coefficients, the changes influence of individual structure parameters on the deviation of basic parameter values of the characteristic was considered. The considerations were illustrated by the numerical example.
High distribution system power-losses are predominantly due to lack of investments in R&D for improving the efficiency of the system and improper planning during installation. Outcomes of this are un-designed extensions of the distributing power lines, the burden on the system components like transformers and overhead (OH) lines/conductors and deficient reactive power supply leading to drop in a system voltage. Distributed generation affects the line power flow and voltage levels on the system equipment. These impacts of distributed generation (DG) may be to improve system efficiency or reduce it depending on the operating environment/conditions of the distribution system and allocation of capacitors. For this purpose, allocating of distributed generation optimally for a given radial distribution system can be useful for the system outlining and improve efficiency. In this paper, a new method is used for optimally allocating the DG units in the radial distribution system to curtail distribution system losses and improve voltage profile. Also, the variation in active power load in the system is considered for effective utilization of DG units. To evidence the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, computer simulations are carried out in MATLAB software on the IEEE-33 bus system and Vastare practical 116 bus system.
The paper presents definitions and relative measures of the system sensitivity and sensitivity of its errors. The model of a real system and model of an ideal measuring system were introduced. It allows to determine the errors of the system. The paper presents also how to use the error sensitivity analysis carried out on the models of the measuring system to the correction of the nonlinearity error of its static characteristic. The corrective function is determined as a relation between the input variable of the tested system and its chosen parameter. The use of the proposed method has been presented on the example of a phase angle modulator. The obtained results have been compared with the results of analytic calculations. The idea of a phase angle modulator is also presented.
A new soft-fault diagnosis approach for analog circuits with parameter tolerance is proposed in this paper. The approach uses the fuzzy nonlinear programming (FNLP) concept to diagnose an analog circuit under test quantitatively. Node-voltage incremental equations, as constraints of FNLP equation, are built based on the sensitivity analysis. Through evaluating the parameters deviations from the solution of the FNLP equation, it enables us to state whether the actual parameters are within tolerance ranges or some components are faulty. Examples illustrate the proposed approach and show its effectiveness.
The purpose of the present research relates to the sensitivity analysis of road vehicle comfort and handling performances with respect to suspension technological parameters. The envisaged suspension being of semi-active nature, this implies first to consider an hybrid modeling approach consisting of a 3D multibody model of the full car - an Audi A6 in our case - coupled with the electro-hydraulic model of the suspension dampers. Concerning parameter sensitivitie, the goal is to capture them for themselves - and not necessarily for optimization purpose - because their knowledge is of a great interest for the damper manufacturer. An important issue of the research is to consider objective functions which are based on complete time integrations along a given trajectory, the goal being - for instance - to quantify the sensitivity of the carbody rms acceleration (comfort) or of the vehicle overturning character (handling) with respect to suspension parameters. On one hand, the accuracy of the various partial derivatives computation can be greatly enhanced thanks to the symbolic capabilities of our ROBOTRAN multibody program. On the other hand, the computational efficiency of the process also takes advantage of the recursive formulation of the multibody equations of motion which must be time integrated with respect to both the generalized coordinates and their partial derivatives in case of the so-called direct method underlying sensitivity analysis.
The paper presents investigations related to solving of a direct and inverse problem of a non-stationary heat conduction equation for a cylinder. The solution of the inverse problem in the form of temperature distributions has been obtained through minimization of a functional being the measure of the difference between the values of measured and calculated temperatures in M points of the heated cylinder. The solution of the conduction equation was presented in the convolutional form and then numerically integrated approximating one of the integrand with a step function described with parameter Θ ∈ (0, 1]. The influence of the integration parameter Θ on the obtained solution of the inverse problem (including a number of temperature measurement points inside the heated body) has been analyzed. The influence of the parameter Θ on the sensitivity of the obtained temperature distributions has been investigated.
The first order variation of critical loads of thin-walled columns with bisymmetric open cross-sectiondue to some variations of the stiffness and location of bracing elements is derived. The con-siderations are based on the classical linear theory of thin-walled beams with non-deformablecross-section introduced by Vlasov . Both lateral braces and braces that restraint warping andtorsion of the cross-section have been taken into account. In the numerical examples dealing withI-column, the functions describing the influence of location of the braces with unit stiffness on thecritical load of torsional and flexural buckling are derived. The linear approximation of the exactrelation of the critical load due to the variation of the stiffness and location of braces is determined.
Wild ruminants are an interesting topic for research because only limited information exists regarding their microbiota. They could also be an environmental reservoir of undesirable bacteria for other animals or humans. In this study faeces of the 21 free-living animals was sampled (9 Cervus elaphus-red deer, adult females, 12 Capreolus capreolus-roe deer, young females). They were culled by selective-reductive shooting during the winter season of 2014/2015 in the Strzałowo Forest District-Piska Primeval Forest (53° 36 min 43.56 sec N, 21° 30 min 58.68 sec E) in Poland. Buttiauxella sp. is a psychrotolerant, facultatively anaerobic, Gram-negative rod anaerobic bacte- rial species belonging to the Phylum Proteobacteria, Class Gammaproteobacteria, Order Entero- bacteriales, Family Enterobacteriacae and to Genus Buttiauxella. Buttiauxella sp. has never previ- ously been reported in wild ruminants. In this study, identification, antimicrobial profile and sensitivity to enterocins of Buttiauxella strains were studied as a contribution to the microbiota of wild animals, but also to extend knowledge regarding the antimicrobial spectrum of enterocins. Five strains were identified using the MALDI-TOF identification system (evaluation score value was up to 2.224) and allotted to the genus Buttiauxella including the species Buttiauxella gaviniae, B. ferragutiae, B. agrestis. Strains were DNase negative, and they hydrolysed esculin; fermentation of L-arabinose, D-mannitol and D-mannose was positive. Dulcitol, inositol reaction, urea and indol were negative. Buttiauxella strains did not form biofilm. They were resistant to at least one of the 13 antibiotics tested. B. agrestis 2/109/1 was resistant to amdinocillin, clindamycin and pen- icillin. However, Buttiauxella strains were sensitive to the enterocins used (inhibition activity ranged from 100 to 25 600 AU/ml).
This paper studies the assessment of sensitivity to land degradation of Deliblato sands (the northern part of Serbia), as a special nature reserve. Sandy soils of Deliblato sands are highly sensitive to degradation (given their fragility), while the system of land use is regulated according to the law, consisting of three zones under protection. Based on the MEDALUS approach and the characteristics of the study area, four main factors were considered for evaluation: soil, climate, vegetation and management. Several indicators affecting the quality of each factor were identified. Each indicator was quantified according to its quality and given a weighting of between 1.0 and 2.0. ArcGIS 9 was utilized to analyze and prepare the layers of quality maps, using the geometric mean to integrate the individual indicator map. In turn, the geometric mean of all four quality indices was used to generate sensitivity of land degradation status map. Results showed that 56.26% of the area is classified as critical; 43.18% as fragile; 0.55% as potentially affected and 0.01% as not affected by degradation. The values of vegetation quality index, expressed as coverage, diversity of vegetation functions and management policy during the protection regime are clearly represented through correlation coefficient (0.87 and 0.47).
Accurate force and torque calculations are fundamental to being able to predict the operation of an electromechanical device or system. The Maxwell stress tensor and the virtual work principle are the two major theories for force and torque calculation. However, if local distributions of torque are needed to couple to structural and vibration analyses, the conventional Maxwell stress approach cannot provide this easily. A recently developed approach based on sensitivity analysis has the capability to deliver local stress and torque as well as accurate global results. In addition, this approach divides the total torque into different components which are essential to the design of electrical devices. This paper includes several numerical examples of torque calculations of different electrical machines. The results are verified by a commercial software package using the Maxwell stress based force calculation.
Predicted climate change may have negative impact on many environmental components including vegetation by increase of evapotranspiration and reduction of available water resources. Moreover, a growing global population and extensive use of water for irrigation and industry result in increasing demand for water. Facing these threats, quantitative and qualitative protection of water resources requires development of tools for drought assessment and prediction to support effective decision making and mitigate the impacts of droughts. Therefore, the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management, National Research Institute has developed and implemented a set of tools for the operational drought hazard assessment. The developed tools cover drought indices estimation, assessment of sensitivity to it formation and drought hazard prediction. They are streamlined into an operational scheme combined with data assimilation routines and products generation procedures. A drought hazard assessment scheme was designed to be implemented into the platform of a hydrological system supporting the operational work of hydrological forecast offices. The scheme was launched to run operationally for the selected catchments of the Odra River and the Wisla River basins. The crucial resulting products are presented on the website operated by IMWM-NRI: POSUCH@ (Operational System for Providing Drought Prediction and Characteristics) (http://posucha.imgw.pl/). The paper presents the scheme and preliminary results obtained for the drought event which began in August 2011.
The paper presents the results of investigating the effect of increase of observation correlations on detectability and identifiability of a single gross error, the outlier test sensitivity and also the response-based measures of internal reliability of networks. To reduce in a research a practically incomputable number of possible test options when considering all the non-diagonal elements of the correlation matrix as variables, its simplest representation was used being a matrix with all non-diagonal elements of equal values, termed uniform correlation. By raising the common correlation value incrementally, a sequence of matrix configurations could be obtained corresponding to the increasing level of observation correlations. For each of the measures characterizing the above mentioned features of network reliability the effect is presented in a diagram form as a function of the increasing level of observation correlations. The influence of observation correlations on sensitivity of the w -test for correlated observations (Förstner 1983,Teunissen 2006) is investigated in comparison with the original Baarda’s w -test designated for uncorrelated observations, to determine the character of expected sensitivity degradation of the latter when used for correlated observations. The correlation effects obtained for different reliability measures exhibit mutual consistency in a satisfactory extent. As a by-product of the analyses, a simple formula valid for any arbitrary correlation matrix is proposed for transforming the Baarda’s w -test statistics into the w -test statistics for correlated observations.
Semiconductive - resistive sensors of toxic and explosive gases were fabricated from nanograins of SnO2 using thick-.lm technology. Sensitivity, selectivityand stabilityof sensors working in di.erent temperature depend on the way the tin dioxide and additives were prepared. A construction also plays an important role. The paper presents an attitude towards the evaluation of transport of electrical charges in semiconductive grain layer of SnO2, when dangerous gases appear in the surrounding atmosphere.
In the paper, a general topology of continuous-time Active-RC filter is presented. The model includes all possible Active-RC filter structures as particular cases and allows us to analyze them using a unified algebraic formalism. This makes it suitable for use in computeraided analysis and design of Active-RC filters. By its construction, the model takes into account the finite DC gain and the finite bandwidth as well as non-zero output resistance of operational amplifiers. Filters with ideal OPAMPs can be treated as particular cases. Sensitivity and noise analysis of Active-RC filters is also performed in the proposed general setting. The correctness of the model is verified by comparison with SPICE simulation.
The area of environmental protection concern minimises the impact that technical objects have on the environment. Usually the most effective way of protecting the environment is to influence the source of the problem. For this reason studies are conducted to modify the construction of machines, power machines in particular, so as to minimise their impact on the environment. In the case of environmental protection from noise it is most convenient to carry out measurements in an anechoic chamber. Unfortunately, this is possible only in very limited circumstances. In all other cases measurements are performed using an engineering method or the survey method, both of which are described in the standards and by taking into account the so-called environmental corrections. The obtained results are burdened with greater error than those of measurements in an anechoic chamber. Therefore, it would seem advantageous to develop a method of obtaining similar and reliable results as those in an anechoic chamber, but in a reverberant field. The authors decided to use numerical modelling for this purpose. The main objective of this work is a comprehensive analysis of the numerical model of a laboratory designed for acoustic tests of selected power machines. The geometry of a room comprising an area of analysis is easy to design. The main difficulty in modelling the phenomena occurring in the analysed area can be the lack of knowing the boundary conditions. Therefore, the authors made an attempt to analyse the sensitivity of various acoustic parameters in a room in order to change these boundary conditions depending on the sound absorption coefficient
Direct and inverse problems for unsteady heat conduction equation for a cylinder were solved in this paper. Changes of heat conduction coefficient and specific heat depending on the temperature were taken into consideration. To solve the non-linear problem, the Kirchhoff’s substitution was applied. Solution was written as a linear combination of Chebyshev polynomials. Sensitivity of the solution to the inverse problem with respect to the error in temperature measurement and thermocouple installation error was analysed. Temperature distribution on the boundary of the cylinder, being the numerical example presented in the paper, is similar to that obtained during heating in the nitrification process.