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Abstrakt

Semiotics is the study of how signs are interpreted as references, and names are an obvious type of sign. Semiotics may therefore be considered a useful approach to all types of name study — whether personal names, place names, commercial names, or literary names. As described by C. S. Peirce, an act of reference consists of a sign (e.g., a word, word part, road sign, emblem, or simply a finger) and a referent (e.g., an object, conceptual model, or analytic definition). Furthermore, all acts of reference reflect one or more of three basic types of relationships: 1) similarity, 2) one-to-one correspondence, and/or 3) arbitrary convention. If a sign is interpreted as similar to a referent, it functions iconically. If it is interpreted as a designation or as caused by the referent, it functions indexically. If it is interpreted as referring to two or more indexical referents, it evokes related qualities and thereby functions symbolically. The primary interpretation of names is indexical. However, the purpose of this paper is to show how names, as signs, are also interpreted iconically and symbolically, even at the same time. Different types of names will be used to illustrate these semiotic functions.
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Abstrakt

This paper presents an experimental system for remote communication between road users and traffic signs. Implemented solution consists of two modules: a transmitter (traffic sign), including novel system for remote waking-up by the passing vehicle with use of the quasi-passive (biased) diode detector circuit, and a receiver (vehicle), which is responsible for wake-up signaling and interpreting received messages. Both modules use Wi-Fi protocol operating in 2.4 GHz ISM band for sending data, and OOK signaling in 868 MHZ ISM band for sending wake-up signals. The paper provides theoretical analysis, description of design challenges and chosen solutions, and finally, laboratory measurements as well as the results of tests conducted in the systems’ target environment with a moving vehicle, confirming correct operation of the system.
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Abstrakt

Research of semiotic aspects Lithuanian military air navigation charts was based on the semantic, graphic and information load analysis. The aim of semantic analysis was to determine how the conventional cartographical symbols, used in air navigation charts, correspond with carto-linguistic and carto-semiotic requirements. The analysis of all the markings was performed complex and collected by questionnaire were interviewed various respondents: pilots, cartographers and other chart users. The researches seek two aims: evaluate information and graphical load of military air navigation charts. Information load evaluated to calculate all objects and phenomenon, which was in 25 cm² of map. Charts analysis showed that in low flight charts (LFC) average information load are 4 – 5 times richer than in the operational maps. Map signs optimization on LFC has to be managed very carefully, choosing signs that can reduce the load of information and helps for the information transfer process. Graphical load of maps evaluated of aeronautical maps is not great (5 – 12%) and does not require reduction the information load and generalization of charts. Air navigation charts analysis pointed that not all air navigation sings correspond carto-semiotic requirements and must be improved. The authors suggested some new sings for military air navigation chart, which are simpler, equivalent to human psychophysical perception criteria, creates faster communication and less load on the chart.
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