Subspace-based methods have been effectively used to estimate enhanced speech from noisy speech samples. In the traditional subspace approaches, a critical step is splitting of two invariant subspaces associated with signal and noise via subspace decomposition, which is often performed by singular-value decomposition or eigenvalue decomposition. However, these decomposition algorithms are highly sensitive to the presence of large corruptions, resulting in a large amount of residual noise within enhanced speech in low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) situations. In this paper, a joint low-rank and sparse matrix decomposition (JLSMD) based subspace method is proposed for speech enhancement. In the proposed method, we firstly structure the corrupted data as a Toeplitz matrix and estimate its effective rank value for the underlying clean speech matrix. Then the subspace decomposition is performed by means of JLSMD, where the decomposed low-rank part corresponds to enhanced speech and the sparse part corresponds to noise signal, respectively. An extensive set of experiments have been carried out for both of white Gaussian noise and real-world noise. Experimental results show that the proposed method performs better than conventional methods in many types of strong noise conditions, in terms of yielding less residual noise and lower speech distortion.
The relationship between internal response-based reliability and conditionality is investigated for Gauss-Markov (GM) models with uncorrelated observations. The models with design matrices of full rank and of incomplete rank are taken into consideration. The formulas based on the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) of the design matrix are derived which clearly indicate that the investigated concepts are independent of each other. The methods are presented of constructing for a given design matrix the matrices equivalent with respect to internal response-based reliability as well as the matrices equivalent with respect to conditionality. To analyze conditionality of GM models, in general being inconsistent systems, a substitute for condition number commonly used in numerical linear algebra is developed, called a pseudo-condition^number. Also on the basis of the SVD a formula for external reliability is proposed, being the 2-norm of a vector of parameter distortions induced by minimal detectable error in a particular observation. For systems with equal nonzero singular values of the design matrix, the formula can be expressed in terms of the index of internal response-based reliability and the pseudo-condition^number. With these measures appearing in explicit form, the formula shows, although only for the above specific systems, the character of the impact of internal response-based reliability and conditionality of the model upon its external reliability. Proofs for complementary properties concerning the pseudo-condition^number and the 2-norm of parameter distortions in systems with minimal constraints are given in the Appendices. Numerical examples are provided to illustrate the theory.
Spectrophotometry is an analytical technique of increasing importance for the food industry, applied i.a. in the quantitative assessment of the composition of mixtures. Since the absorbance data acquired by means of a spectrophotometer are highly correlated, the problem of calibration of a spectrophotometric analyzer is, as a rule, numerically ill-conditioned, and advanced data-processing methods must be frequently applied to attain an acceptable level of measurement uncertainty. This paper contains a description of four algorithms for calibration of spectrophotometric analyzers, based on the singular value decomposition (SVD) of matrices, as well as the results of their comparison - in terms of measurement uncertainty and computational complexity - with a reference algorithm based on the estimator of ordinary least squares. The comparison is carried out using an extensive collection of semi-synthetic data representative of trinary mixtures of edible oils. The results of that comparison show the superiority of an algorithm of calibration based on the truncated SVD combined with a signal-to-noise ratio used as a criterion for the selection of regularisation parameters - with respect to other SVD-based algorithms of calibration.
A new approach to acoustic quality assessment of churches during simulation tests is proposed in the article. The numerical global index, based on four partial indices: reverberation, speech intelligibility, music sound index and a proposed new one - sound strength index, assesses the acoustic parameters of the model of the tested church in a complex manner. The global single number index was obtained from 17 simulations of acoustic adaptation options of the investigated church's interior. The equation of the approximate global index has been obtained by means of singular vectors, obtained from Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) of the Index Observation Matrix of Simulation Variants (IOMSV). The weights of four partial indices and a universal equation of the global index have been calculated using the SVD technique to solve the problem of correlated acoustical parameters. The global index may be a helpful tool during simulation tests of acoustic quality assessment of churches. The proposed final equation of the global index does not require knowledge of the SVD technique and the values of acoustic parameters preferred for churches. Therefore the methodology proposed is easily applicable.
Multiple input multiple output (MIMO) is a multiple antenna technology used extensively in wireless communication systems. With the ever increasing demand in high data rates, MIMO system is the necessity of wireless communication. In MIMO wireless communication system, where the multiple antennas are placed on base station and mobile station, the major problem is the constant power of base station, which has to be allocated to data streams optimally. This problem is referred as a power allocation problem. In this research, singular value decomposition (SVD) is used to decouple the MIMO system in the presence of channel state information (CSI) at the base station and forms parallel channels between base station and mobile station. This practice parallel channel ensures the simultaneous transmission of parallel data streams between base station and mobile station. Along with this, water filling algorithm is used in this research to allocate power to each data stream optimally. Further the relationship between the channel capacity of MIMO wireless system and the number of antennas at the base station and the mobile station is derived mathematically. The performance comparison of channel capacity for MIMO systems, both in the presence and absence of CSI is done. Finally, the effect of channel correlation because of antennas at the base stations and the mobile stations in the MIMO systems is also measured.
The paper presents an innovative approach for the index assessment of the acoustic properties of churches. A new formula for an approximate single number index to assess selected acoustic parameters of church interiors, such as reverberation time (RT), speech intelligibility index (RASTI) and music clarity index (C80), is presented in the paper. The formula is created by means of the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) method. An innovative approach for calculating the weights of partial indices is shown by solving the problem of redundant information, i.e., the system of overdetermined linear equations, using a computed pseudoinverse matrix. The new procedures for calculating the values of three partial indices and the single number index to assess selected acoustic parameters are presented. The proposed method was verified by measurements in several selected churches.
In parallel with research conducted using conventional methods, a uniform index method for assessing the acoustic quality of Roman Catholic churches has been developed. The latest version of the index method has been created using the index observation matrix of 12 churches which have been rated by means of the single number global index. Assessments of the acoustic quality of any Roman Catholic church, using two calculation models: the Global Acoustic Properties Index (GAP) and the Global Index (GI), are shown in the article. The verification was performed on the example of one church, showing the way of calculating global indices to assess the acoustic quality of a new facility. The next stages in the development of the index method for assessing the acoustic quality of churches were taking into account the audience, using simulation tests and determining the spatial distribution of the single number GAP index in an examined church. An attempt to use the GAP and GI calculation models to assess the acoustic properties of some churches is also shown in the article.