The aim of this paper is to reflect on the role of non-governmental organizations in contemporary cities. It is assumed that post-socialist cities are subjected to changes related to new models of citizenship as well as new models of urban social movements. First, a general picture of Polish non-governmental sector is presented. Next the idea of social movements in a post socialist city is given. The following part presents the idea of NGO as agents of a social change.Th e notions of social conflict, common good and a collective identity are used. The paper sums up with conclusions and a demand to built coalitions between different social actors.
In the following article the author discussed the form of research and the central effects of a doctor’s project about four smaller party-blocks in the last years of the DDR. The citizens and members of all five party blocks, also SED, demanded between summer 1986 and November 1989 political and economic reforms in the DDR, referring to Gorbatschow’s glasnost’ and perestroika and under the dynamical influence of the social processes in Poland, Hungary, Yugoslavia and Romania. The parties’ members issued critical statements about social deficits within the socialistic system which were relayed to the party leaders with different intensity. The dissertation shall provide answers concerning assumed impulses for the DDR-reformation from the party-blocks even without the citizens’ initiatives and the political engagement of the churches. T he a rticle d iscussed the developments of CDU(D), LDP(D), NDPD and DBD since 1980ies and described their positioning within the political and economic system of the DDR.