The subject of the article is interaction of Russian hand-written rhymes and oral paremiae in XVII–XVIII centuries. The interplay between the literature and oral genres bases on the unity of motifs, characters and topoi as well as folk beliefs and stereotypes.
Sylwia Bedyńska, PhD, from the Institute of General Psychology at the SWPS University of Social Sciences and Humanities, explains how negative stereotypes affect gifted women and their education choices.
The present studies explore how activating concepts pertaining to the origins of interindividual differences affect the processing of stereotypical and counterstereotypical information. The concepts, i.e., nature and nurture, are both assumed to evoke similar stereotypical expectations although nurture implies greater flexibility. The studies show that stereotypical information enhances whereas counterstereotypical information diminishes stereotyping when nurture is activated. In contrast, counterstereotypical evidence challenges what activated nature would suggest and perceivers primed with nature evince stronger stereotyping when they encounter counterstereotypical information. The results also show that priming nature leads perceivers to attribute stereotype conformity to internal causes whereas nurture accredits conformity to situational constraints. Stereotype flexibility is associated with the subjective ease with which perceivers can both imagine counterstereotypical and mentally undo stereotypical evidence.
Based upon the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, according to which language influences thought, we may affirm how social stereotypes remain bound by stereotyped usages of language. Hence, speaking is never neutral as it is underpinned by a way of thinking, of communicating, of being. The sexist usage of language encapsulates a function of emphasis at the semantic level and an obscuring function in morphological terms. We thus question what sexism in language means in order to inquire as to how the ways we make use of language may influence our ways of thinking and, consequently, our ways of acting.
The aim of the article is to analyze literary images of women who had an impact on the history of Poland in the historical novel Gambit hetmański (2014), written by Robert Foryś. This type of fiction is a popular variety of the genre, its main theme is the conflict between political factions fighting for power. The leaders of the factions are women. The article focus on the answer to the question: whether Foryś creating scandalous portraits of women who reach for power is a threat or a chance for them to recall and preserve their presence in history.
The author highly appreciates the fi rst issue of the third volume of the fundamental “Dictionary of folk stereotypes and symbols” (ed. prof. E. Bartminsky), dedicated to the symbolism of plants. This issue presents rich materials (language, folklore, ethnographic) related to cereals, which in the popular perception have a mythological interpretation, the daily bread is God’s gift, endowed with sacred significance.