What is focused on in the undertaken study are teachers from schools educating in the Polish language in the Czech Republic. The author refers to the studies conducted in 2014–2016 and in 2017 among teachers from schools for the Polish national minority located in Zaolzie. These schools effectively compete with schools for the Czech majority. Among other things, they have survived owing to teachers and their decisive strategies, which involve not only strictly competitive but also various forms of collaborative behaviour.
The present paper aims at investigating the problem of translating interjections from English into Polish. William Shakespeare’s Hamlet and its Polish translations by J. Paszkowski (1961), M. Słomczyński (1978), and S. Barańczak (1990) are chosen as the corpus for the present study. The analysis of the translations of the original English interjections will reveal the translational strategies followed by the translators. The first part of the paper is devoted to a short discussion concerning the definition and taxonomy of interjections. Next, the problem of the role interjections play in drama is discussed on the basis of the specialist literature. Finally, different translation strategies are presented followed by the analysis of the corpus material.
In colonies situated at the southern coast of King George Island the nesting areas of penguins of the genus Pygoscelis were investigated with respect to the protection of eggs and chicks against flooding. Relationships between the nesting strategy determined by the characteristics of breeding grounds, degree of colonization and breeding time, and the climatic conditions of zones in which majorities of particular species populations breed were presented. It was recorded, that interspecific differences in nesting strategy of pygoscelid penguins enable species which breed sympatrically to avoid competition for the nest-sites, and also seem to be responsible for various population dynamics of species in the maritime Antarctic.
The article discusses selected issues related to the process of creating a document, Strategy Warsaw 2030, adopted in May 2018. The construction of the strategy lasted almost two years and was characterized by high social involvement. The experience that Warsaw can share with other cities and municipalities clearly shows that creating documents in a participatory manner is the most possible and gives many opportunities to create synergies. At the same time, the scope of changes that the document specifi es in the context of its implementation, orders careful observation of the actions of the city authorities in the future. The article focuses primarily on the following issues: the period in which the strategy should be updated, the city’s relations with its surroundings, the strategic team, socialization and fi nally the implementation of the strategy.
In this article, strategies and writing tricks (the trick of “defamiliarization”, imagery) which in Nabokov’s short story A Guide to Berlin serve to design the image of the city and simultaneously to explore the world of values (axiological map of Berlin/Eden) are being interpreted. The author of this article proves that the semantics of the title guide is connected with the strategy of transition from empirical observation and one “fragment of space” to expression of a situation in which the subject of speech has found himself. Moreover, it is shown that the subjectivity of the observer, his way of experiencing the world and his creative sensitivity seem crucial in the story, because he evaluates the surrounding reality and in the “act of individual creativity” builds upon it yet another space – an unusual, transformed one, close to the emigrant/the author of the guidebook. Attention is also paid to the differentiation of two ways of perceiving the world and two types of consciousness: the artist’s/narrator’s and his listener’s (“average consciousness”).
The study consists of three parts. The first comprises the characteristic features of social politics strategy. They include the basic assumptions and functions of the social politics strategy in the field of the development of education and aid activities at the level of local units of territorial authorities. The essence of the study is the second part. It consists of the own research results – an analysis of the aims and tasks associated with inclusive education (also with preparing local communities for creating inclusive culture), comprised in strategies. The whole is completed with final conclusions. The study is aimed at the qualitative analysis of the development strategy of 17 communes (3900 pages of documents) as regards the issues of disability. The research interest was to find out whether the slogans promoting the equal access to education, elimination of barriers and preparing mainstream schools and local community for inclusive culture had been reflected in any way in the social politics strategies of local authorities – in the documents which, at least in the assumptions, constitute the starting point for generating good practices, also in the field of social support and education for disabled learners.
The paper refers to the specific functional area, which identity was primarily based on the relationship with water – in major port cities, as well as related smaller settlemets. It discribes the phenomenon of using and reinterpreting the potential of a rich hydrographic network for constructing the contemporary spatial identity after the violent events of the 20th century. The case studies cited are differentiated due to the specifi city of the activities and the purpose of its implementation.
The aim of this study is to design a control strategy for the angular rate (speed) of a DC motor by varying the terminal voltage. This paper describes various designs for the control of direct current (DC) motors. We derive a transfer function for the system and connect it to a controller as feedback, taking the applied voltage as the system input and the angular velocity as the output. Different strategies combining proportional, integral, and derivative controllers along with phase lag compensators and lead integral compensators are investigated alongside the linear quadratic regulator. For each controller transfer function, the step response, root locus, and Bode plot are analysed to ascertain the behaviour of the system, and the results are compared to identify the optimal strategy. It is found that the linear quadratic controller provides the best overall performance in terms of steady-state error, response time, and system stability. The purpose of the study that took place was to design the most appropriate controller for the steadiness of DC motors. Throughout this study, analytical means like tuning methods, loop control, and stability criteria were adopted. The reason for this was to suffice the preconditions and obligations. Furthermore, for the sake of verifying the legitimacy of the controller results, modelling by MATLAB and Simulink was practiced on every controller.
The small scale green areas, urban parks, urban forests or natural green areas are vital components of the urban structure of cities. This paper, using examples from Bratislava, analyzes the successful and lost opportunities to apply the concept of green space as a strategy for urban regeneration and development, and discusses the ways to incorporate this concept in the teaching and educational practices in the fields of urbanism and landscape architecture.
Freeform surfaces have wider engineering applications. Designers use B-splines, Non-Uniform Rational B-splines, etc. to represent the freeform surfaces in CAD, while the manufacturers employ machines with controllers based on approximating functions or splines. Different errors also creep in during machining operations. Therefore the manufactured freeform surfaces have to be verified for conformance to design specification. Different points on the surface are probed using a coordinate measuring machine and substitute geometry of surface established from the measured points is compared with the design surface. The sampling points are distributed according to different strategies. In the present work, two new strategies of distributing the points on the basis of uniform surface area and dominant points are proposed, considering the geometrical nature of the surfaces. Metrological aspects such as probe contact and margins to be provided along the sides have also been included. The results are discussed in terms of deviation between measured points and substitute surface as well as between design and substitute surfaces, and compared with those obtained with the methods reported in the literature.
The paper aims to discuss the specific characteristics of Italian employment contract from a linguistic point of view as well as from the point of view of the translation. First of all, the employment contract as a legal document will be discussed in regard to the text classifi cation proposed by Sabatini (1990). Moreover, the general typology of Italian and Polish employment contracts will be taken into consideration. The analysis is complemented by Polish equivalents of the main Italian terms and phrases used usually in the employment contact. The fi nal comments will be dedicated to the issue of translation procedures used for dealing with the translation shifts proposed by Vinay and Darbelnet (1958) and Cosmai (2007).
Tonnacypris glacialis (G.O. Sars, 1890) is a meiobenthic species widely distributed in Arctic freshwater lakes. Field study of its life cycle as well as the laboratory experiments showed clearly that only one generation of this ostracod species occurs during the vegetation season, and that the condition necessary for the next generation to appear is eggs freezing.
The problem of deposit protection and the process of liquidation of mining plants does not find effective solutions in the national law. Nevertheless, this is a very up-to-date issue. This situation prompted the authors of the article to once again analyze these issues. The number of abandoned exploitation sites which were published in the Polish Geological Institute reports should affect the entire licensing system and the state’s raw material policy. As a good host of raw materials, which we have been given by Earth Mother, we cannot allow that the mining licensing system, the liquidation procedures of mining plants without due diligence, result in the lack of protection of these deposits. The rational raw material economy and the ability to exploit it for the future generations, while failing to effectively enforce the site liquidation process makes it necessary to take actions leading to not blocking the mineral deposits in this way. The analysis shows what appropriate actions should be taken. The authors have thoroughly investigated the legal regulations over the past century, compiling them with the current legislation, and pointing out the weaknesses of the system in the field of deposits protection, particularly in the part of the unexploited deposits. Criticism covered both the statutory regulations – Geological and mining law as well as executive acts in the field of deposit protection. A separate analysis was subjected to the procedure of liquidation of the mining plants in the aspect of deposits protection, for mining plants operating on the basis of the Province Marshal’s licenses. The process presented in the flowchart layout clearly shows the weak points of the currently operating system.
The research of development capabilities is a fundamental of strategic issues, which has to be taken into consideration by coal mines. This is particularly difficult in the current environment, which is determined by its crisis situation. In such conditions, it is necessary to take difficult decisions, and serious, strategic challenges into account, which allow for the crisis to be overcome, for the renewal and economic effectiveness of the operation of these coal mines, which have potential to grow, and closing the coal mines, which have not potential to grow. Due to the effects of such decisions, which concern not only coal mines but also the Silesian region, it is essential to prepare information to support them and promote rational choices. This is related to the issue of research for development possibilities. The article presents considerations related to the subject of research for development possibilities of coal mines in a crisis situation. Taking the results of literature study into account, the model of research process was developed, and identified the research issues concerning the following: - the identification of external factors which determine the possibility of development of the Polish mines and drawing a schedule of their changes in the future, - the identification of internal factors which determine the possibility of development of the Polish mines, - developing a way for the assessment of the development potential of the coal mines, to show appropriate strategic options and action programmes for these options, - determining possible strategic options and corresponding schedules, appropriate for the specific nature of the mines. The proposition of their solutions, which were obtained in the process of using the specific methods and research tools, allowed the guidelines in terms of research of development capabilities of coal mines to be presented.
The text discusses the problems of sensory processing disorders (SPD) and their impact on difficulties children have at school. Individual categories of sensory processing disorders were characterized and examples of behavior of children who may have those problems were described. Certain strategies which teachers can use when working with a child with SI disorders were also offered. It should be noted that the early diagnosis of symptoms that may indicate the occurrence of sensory processing disorders, followed by apt diagnosis and therapy allow children to function properly in the school environment and positively influence their self-esteem. This in turn facilitates the process of learning and contributes future success.
Nowadays, the ubiquity of changes determines a new approach to programming development. In this situation, it is necessary to update the strategy of socio-economic development in many cities. The aim of the paper is to present the process of updating the city’s development strategy on selected examples (Katowice, Cracow, Poznań, Warsaw and Wrocław), through the prism of the scale and tools of public participation. Wrocław is a centre that particularly approached the implementation of the megatrend of public participation in the work on updating the development strategy. The paper delineates differences between public consultations and real public participation. The following research methods were used in the study: literature research, analysis of source texts, benchmarking and comparative analysis. The time horizon covers the period of public participation in the documents’ construction and is different for particular cities selected for analysis, however, it falls in the years 2013-2017.
In accordance with the principles of conducting revitalization activities specified in the Revitalization Act in force from 9 October 2015 and horizontal guidelines for revitalization in operational programs for 2014-2020, the preparatory phase of the revitalization process should include multi-layered analyzes concluded with deductions included in communal urban regeneration programs. The article describes the role of student architectural and urban competitions performed in cooperation between municipalities and universities as innovative analytical and conceptual activities that could form the basis for specifying recommendations in revitalization strategies planned by a given municipality. The infl uence of the student competitions’ results on the development of the city revitalization strategy is presented on grounds of periodic competitions organized at the Faculty of Architecture of the Gdańsk University of Technology in cooperation with the Department of Plans and Marketing of the City Hall of the City of Gdańsk.
The presented material is a concise report of the research on the ‘condition’ of initial teacher education provided at universities in Poland in accordance with ‘new’ Ministry standards of 17 January 2012. In the analysis of data collected from 30 universities in May 2015, we focused on models of the organisation of this part of teaching at universities, the ways of constructing the professional curricula, the role and place of practice in the learning processes and the strategy of assessment of the preparation for teaching. Our research result is not quite optimistic. Under the ‘new label’ of standards we still have quasi-traditional approach to initial teacher education. In acquiring the new professional competencies students do not get real support from their academic and school partners. They are not very interesting in building opportunities for transforming learning aiming at transforming teaching
The environment is the greatest good for the people. Everyone wants to breath air of the best possible quality, whether living in the city center of a metropolis or in a rural area. Air polluted with very fine particles contribute to the negative effect on people’s health and the whole environment. A significant part of air dust pollution comes from the so-called low emissions sources which include: non-standard furnaces, fireplaces, low-efficiency outdated boilers and local heat sources. Since the beginning of Polish Mining Group’s existence, the company actively participates and supports many activities, the aim of which is to improve the air quality by producing and supplying high quality coal for the residential sector. The company has undertaken pro-ecological activities towards creating a new, pro-ecological strategy as well as product offer. The production of an ecological coal assortment is systematically developing but new coal products are also being launched on the market. One of the company’s priorities is the production of thermal coal for the residential sector. Many organizational and technological changes have been made In that area (e.g. the establishmsnt of the Eco-Fuels Production Plant) to ensure a suitable level of production of the highest quality thermal coal.
The article provides the external indications (both international and domestic) showing how important creating an appropriate mineral policy of the country is, especially in the context of mineral security. The current mandatory legal regulations referring to mineral policy and mineral security of the country were presented and discussed against this background, starting with provisions of the Constitution of the Republic of Poland, through the Strategy for Sustainable Development, Spatial Management Concept of the Country 2030 together with Action Plan, Strategy for Energy Security and Environment – 2020 perspective, Geological and Mining Law and other legal acts and implementing provisions, Action Plan “Raw Materials for the Industry” announced by the Minister of Development, the Concept for Mineral Policy presented by the Government Plenipotentiary for the Mineral Policy, and finally – project of the Urban and Building Code in the area of spatial development. In the case of documents being in the course of the proceedings, the current state of working on them is presented, also in the context of particular projected legal solutions for future regulations. The author indicates and justifies the need of accelerating the work and taking actions to prevent the currently appearing phenomena that may impede the execution of the raw materials policy and the protection of key raw materials in the future.
This paper presents a study of control strategies for 5-phase permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs) supplied by a five-leg voltage source inverter. Based on the vectorial decomposition of the multi-phase machine, fictitious machines, magnetically decoupled, allow a more adequate control. In this paper, our study focuses on the vector control of a multi-phase machine using a linear proportional-integral-derivative (PID) current regulator in the cases of sinusoidal and trapezoidal back-electromotive force (EMF) waveforms. In order to determine currents’ references, two strategies are adopted. First one aims to minimize copper losses under constant torque, while the second one targets to increase torque for a given copper losses. These techniques are tested under a variable speed control strategy based on a proportional-integral (PI) regulator and experimentally validated.
Despite significant changes of a political, legal and economic nature, despite clearly expressed intentions, the natural environment of most areas of Europe is further degraded. Therefore, it is necessary to adopt effective solutions, and one of the possibilities of determining the directions of support is the pro-ecological nature of the regional innovation strategy, which will allow transfer of much larger funds to support eco-innovation. The work is a case study. The aim of the research presented in this work is to show the relationship between the provisions of the Regional Innovation Strategy of the Podkarpackie Voivodeship for 2014-2020 for intelligent specialization (RIS3), and the assumptions of the five-helix concept, and the justifi cation for its use in future, in the form of a developed regional eco-innovation strategy.
The article discusses selected issues concerning both the activities and the contents of Strategy Cracow 2030 – An Ambitious Plan of the City Where Life Can Be Enjoyed. The author analyses how selected concepts well known in the local and regional development policy literature and practice such as territorial capital, second-tier city, integrated territorial planning and metropolisation are refl ected in the key development planning document of the second-largest Polish city. The strategy was adopted by the City Council in February 2018. The article focuses in particular on the applied work method, based on an advanced partnership and cooperation of key stakeholders, assumptions adopted in the strategy and axiology, identified challenges and development resources, and metropolitan city aspirations. The author also discusses selected issues regarding implementation system of the strategy.