Average duration of a thermal winter in Hornsund has been determined for 216 days. Average soil temperature at depth of 5 cm in winter is equal —9.8°C. During a spring that lasts 35 days only, soil temperatures at depth of 5 cm indicate distribution nearest to a normal one. Soil temperature distribution in winter substantially differs from the one in spring.
Temperature of superficial water in the Ezcurra Inlet was measured from March 1989 to February 1990, with a use of a mercurial thermometer with accuracy +0.1°C. Temperature was measured usually once a month at selected points. Influence of various factors on temperature of superficial water was preliminarily analysed. Basing on these results, temperature distribution in the mentioned area was determined. Mean yearly temperatures for each station, average space temperatures on measurement days and mean yearly temperatures for the whole area of the Ezcurra Inlet were calculated.
Spatial differentiation of temperature and relative humidity of air on western coast of Spitsbergen in 1979—1983 is presented. Applying the author's classification of types of atmospheric circulation in the studied area, its influence on distribution of these elements is shown. Air temperature in the area is related more to the degree of climate continentality than to its latitude. The lowest mean 5—year temperatures were calculated for stations with highest degrees of thermic continentality (Svea Gruber and Svalbard Lufthavn). The highest thermic differentiation occurs from November to March (1 —4°C) and the lowest in May—June and August—October (0.0— 1.5°C). It is opposite if relative humidity is concerned: the highest differences occur in summer (10—15%) and the lowest in winter (0—9%). Influence of atmospheric circulation on air temperature is larger during a polar night than a polar day. Again, it is opposite in the case of relative humidity. In both analyzed seasons the highest thermic differentiation occurred at the circulation type Ca. However, it was the lowest during a polar night at advection of air from northern and southern sectors, and during a polar day at advection from a northern sector and at the type Cc.
The near-surface ice thermal structure of the Waldemarbreen, a 2.5-square km glacier located at 78°N 12°E in Spitsbergen, Svalbard , is described here. Traditional glaciological mass balance measurements by stake readings and snow surveying have been conducted annually since 1996. The near-surface ice temperature was investigated with automatic borehole thermistors in the ablation and accumulation areas in 2007-2008. The mean annual surface ice temperatures (September-June) of the ablation area were determined to be -4.7°C at 1 m depth and -2.5°C at 9 m . For the accumulation area, they were -3.0°C at 2 m , and -2.3°C at 10 m depth between September and August. On the Waldemarbreen, at 10 m depth, the mean annual near-surface ice temperature was 4.0°C above the mean annual air temperature in the accumulation area. The Waldemarbreen may thus be classified as a polythermal type with cold ice which is below the pressure melting point and a temperate ice layer in the bottom sections of the glacier and with a temperate surface layer only during summer seasons. At a depth of 10 m , temperatures are of the order of -2°C to -3°C.
Tonnacypris glacialis (G.O. Sars, 1890) is a meiobenthic species widely distributed in Arctic freshwater lakes. Field study of its life cycle as well as the laboratory experiments showed clearly that only one generation of this ostracod species occurs during the vegetation season, and that the condition necessary for the next generation to appear is eggs freezing.
The paper presents a spatial distribution of changes of air temperature (T) in the Arctic. Estimates of their spatial relations in the study region were based on a correlation analysis. T in the Arctic is most strongly correlated spatially in winter and spring, and least in summer. The radius of extent of statistically significant correlation coefficients of changes of T at the stations Svalbard Lufthavn, Ostrov Kotelny and Resolute A is equal to 2000-2500 km in winter and 1500-2000 km in summer. An attempt was done to delimit the regions of consistent occurrence of the anomalies T with respect to the signs and magnitudes, as well as of the regions with the most coherent T. The Wroclaw dendrite method was used to solve this problem. Relations of the mean areał T of the climatic regions and of the Arctic as a whole, with the northern hemisphere of temperature and selected climatic factors are presented.
Candona rectangulata is an ostracod species common in cold (<15 ° C ) shallow freshwater Arctic water bodies. This species is useful in palaeolimnological studies because only few known autecological data can be applied in reconstructions of palaeoclimate. Particular attention was paid to the temperature, which is the basic factor determining the geo− graphic range of a species. In this study a wide tolerance of C. rectangulata to the temperature was demonstrated for the first time. Its high tolerance to the temperature changes seems to be based on induction of set of proteins belonging to the family of heat shock proteins. Using PAGE−SDS electrophoresis variation in the protein profile of non−model organism undergoing stress in the field (South Spitsbergen, near Stanisław Siedlecki Polish Polar Station) and in laboratory cultures was presented. These results could explain the eurythermic range of C. rectangulata and its good adaptation to the environmental conditions which normally do not exist in Arctic freshwater ponds.
Many Antarctic marine benthic invertebrates are adapted to specific environ− mental conditions (e.g. low stable temperatures, high salinity and oxygen content). Changes caused by global climatic shifts can be expected to have significant impact on their physiol− ogy and distribution. Odontaster validus, an ubiquitous, omnivorous sea star is one of the “keystone species” in the Antarctic benthic communities. Laboratory experiments were car− ried out to study the effect of temperature rise (from 0 to 5#2;C) on some vital biological func− tions that sea stars must perform in order to survive in their environment. Parameters such as behavioural reaction of sea stars to food and food odour, locomotory performance and abil− ity to right were measured. Temperature increase significantly impaired the ability of O. validus to perform these functions (e.g. lowering the number of sea stars able to right, in− creasing time−to−right, reducing locomotory activity, weakening chemosensory reaction to food and food odour). At temperatures of 4 and 5#2;C a loss of motor coordination was ob− served, although at all tested temperatures up to 5#2;C there were single individuals perform− ing successfully.
The article discusses changes in Polish regulations concerning assessment of the climate hazard in underground mines. Currently, the main empirical index representing the heat strain, used in qualification of the workplace to one of the climate hazard levels in Poland is the equivalent climate temperature. This simple heat index allows easy and quick assessment of the climate hazard. To a major extent, simple heat indices have simplifications and are developed for a specific working environments. Currently, the best methods used in evaluation of microclimate conditions in the workplace are those based on the theory of human thermal balance, where the physiological parameters characterising heat strain are body water loss and internal core temperature of the human body. The article describes the results of research on usage of equivalent climate temperature to heat strain evaluation in underground mining excavations. For this purpose, the numerical model of heat exchange between man and his environment was used, taken from PN-EN ISO 7933:2005. The research discussed in this paper has been carried out considering working conditions and clothing insulation in use in underground mines. The analyses performed in the study allowed formulation of conclusions concerning application of the equivalent climate temperature as a criterion of assessment of climate hazards in underground mines.
In general, Antarctic marine bacteria are small, with biovolumes ranging from 0.139 to 0.204 μm-3 cell-1, but their total biomass in seawater is considerable due to relatively high numbers that approximate to 1020 cells km-3. Bacterial biomass becomes more concentrated closer to land. Our multi-year Antarctic studies demonstrated an average total bacterial biomass of 504 tons in Admirality Bay (24 km3) or 21 tons per 1 km3, versus 6.4 tons per 1 km3 in the open ocean. Strikingly, bacterial biomass reached 330 tons per 1 km3 of seawater at the sea-ice edge, as sampled in Goulden Cove in Admiralty Bay. Bacterial biomass in Admirality Bay, which we believe can be enriched by halotolerant and thermotolerant fresh water bacteria from glacial streams, is equal to or even exceeds that of the standing stock of krill (100-630 tons per bay) or other major living components, including phytoplankton (657 tons), flagellates (591 tons), and ciliates (412 tons). However, the bacterial biomass is exceeded by several orders of magnitude by non-living organic matter, which constitutes the basic bacterial carbon source. Factors regulating high bacterial abundance in the vicinity of land are discussed.
The influence of the refractory coating which is a mixture of silica flour and kaolin on the surface roughness of the plate castings produced using evaporative patterns had been considered in this work. The kaolin was used as a binder and ratio method was employed to form basis for the factorial design of experiment which led to nine runs of experiments. Methyl alcohol at 99% concentration was used as the carrier for the transfer of the coating to the surface of the patterns. Pouring temperature was observed as a process parameter alongside the mix ratios of the coating. Attempts were made to characterize the refractory coating by using two methods; differential thermal analysis (DTA) and X-ray diffraction. Attempt was also made to characterize the casting material. Gating system design was done for the plate casting to determine the correct proportions of the gating parameters in order to construct the gating system properly to avoid turbulence during pouring of liquid metal. A digital profilometer was used to take the measurements of the surface roughness. It was observed that the mix ratio 90% silica flour-10% kaolin produced the lowest value of the surface roughness of the plate castings and had the lowest material loss in the DTA test. The pouring temperature of 650o C produced best casting.
This paper presents the results of measurements of the operation of a photovoltaic system, connected to the power grid. The intensity of solar radiation and the ambient temperature in the location of the installation were simultaneously recorded in different weather conditions on selected days throughout the year. For the combined results the analysis of correlation in terms of efficiency of individual exemplary photovoltaic installation was conducted.
This paper presents the first results of measurements of global solar radiation, albedo, ground surface and 2−m air temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed and direction carried out in the central part of Spitsbergen Island in the period 2008–2010. The study site was located on the coastal ice−free zone of Petuniabukta (north−western branch of Billefjorden), which was strongly affected by local topography, character of the ground surface, and sea ice extent. Temporal analysis of the selected meteorological parameters shows both strong seasonal and inter−diurnal variation affected by synoptic−scale weather systems, channelling and drainage effects of the fjords and surrounding glaciers. The prevailing pattern of atmospheric circulation primarily determined the variation in global solar radiation, wind speed, ground surface and 2−m air temperatures. Furthermore, it was found that thermal differences between Petuniabukta and the nearest meteorological station (Svalbard Lufthavn) differ significantly due to differences in sea ice concentrations and ice types in the fjords during the winter and spring months.
In this study, high performance magnesium-yttria nanocomposite’s room temperature, strength and ductility were significantly enhanced by the dispersion of nano-sized nickel particles using powder blending and a microwave sintering process. The strengthening effect of the dispersed nano-sized nickel particles was consistent up to 100°C and then it gradually diminished with further increases in the test temperature. The ductility of the magnesium-yttria nanocomposite remained unaffected by the dispersed nano-sized nickel particles up to 100°C. Impressively, it was enhanced at 150°C and above, leading to the possibility of the near net shape fabrication of the nanocomposite at a significantly low temperature.
The paper presents the properties of a strain sensor, which was made using the micro hole collapse method and operates in the configuration of a Mach-Zehnder modal interferometer with a PM-1550-01 polarization maintaining photonic crystal fibre. The sensor’s transfer curve was determined analytically. Its strain sensitivity, determined from measurements, decreases slightly with increasing wavelength and is in a range from 2:01 to 2:23 pm/me in the wavelength range 1520–1580 nm. Based on the Fourier analysis of the wavelength spectrum of the constructed sensor, the difference of the group refractive indices of the core and the cladding of the photonic crystal fibre was determined, which are in a range from 7:45#1;103 to 1:01#1;102. The temperature sensitivity of the sensor, determined on the basis of measurements performed in a range from 23 to 60◦C, is positive and equals 5.9 pm/K.
Objective: The aim of this study was to verify if the exposure to the pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) infl uenced the release of proinfl ammatory cytokines from adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) of normal and overweight rats of various age and sex. Moreover, we compared body temperatures of normal-weight and overweight rats. Methods: ADSCs of Wistar rats were isolated from the subcutaneous area in females and paratesticular region in males, cultured and exposed to PEMF (7 Hz, 30 mT). Concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines were determined in rat sera and supernatant from ADSCs cultures exposed and non-exposed to PEMF. Body temperature (BT) was measured twice a week, using an infrared and rectal thermometer. Results: Irrespective of age and sex, animals maintained on low-fat (LF) diet had higher BT than those grown on high-fat (HF) diet. Exposure to PEMF reduced the release of TNF-α and enhanced the production of IL-6 in ADSCs cultures from female pups maintained on LF diet. In contrast, a decrease in IL-6 level was observed in PEMF-exposed ADSCs cultures from female pups grown on HF diet. A similar phenomenon, i.e. a post-exposure increase in IL-6 level was also observed in male pups fed with the LF diet. In the case of ADSCs cultures from adult rats maintained on an HF diet, either males or females, PEMF exposure contributed to a dramatic increase in TNF-α production. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that PEMF exposure may affect the production of proinflammatory cytokines in ADSCs cultures. The intergroup diff erences in BT may result from the presence of an underlying inflammation in obese rats.
The paper deals with circuits, composed of bipolar transistors, diodes, resistors and independent voltage sources, having multiple DC solutions. An algorithm for tracing temperature characteristics, expressing the output signal in terms of the chip temperature, is developed. It is based on the efficient method for finding all the DC solutions sketched in this paper. The algorithm gives complete characteristics which are multivalued and usually composed of disconnected branches. On the other hand the characteristics provided by SPICE are fragmentary, lose some branches or exhibit apparent hysteresis.
In this study, weather conditions causing warm waves in north−western Spits − bergen, exemplified by Ny− Å lesund station, were analyzed. Between 1981 and 2010, 536 days with the maximum temperature exceeding 8.3 ° C (the value of 95 percentile) were selected. 37 warm waves, which altogether lasted 268 days, were identified. A typical feature of pressure pattern causing warm waves was the appearance of positive anomalies of both the sea level pressure and the height of isobaric surface 500 hPa in the Euro−Atlantic sector of the Arctic. This indicates a presence of high−pressure systems in this region. Extremely warm days appeared more often with the circulation from the eastern than the western sector. Longer and warmer heat waves occurring in the last decade of the analyzed period may be considered as a sign of climate warming, which has a significant impact on environment, i.e. reduction in area and thickness of glaciers, reduction of permafrost and snow cover, changes in biodiversity, etc . The increase in the air temperature and more frequent occurrence of heat waves may encourage development of tourism in polar areas, potentially causing further changes in the environment.
The paper discusses the feasibility, effectiveness and validity of a gas turbine power plant, operated according to the Brayton comparative cycle in order to develop low-potential waste heat (160◦C) and convert it into electricity. Fourteen working fluids, mainly with organic origin have been examined. It can be concluded that low molecular weight working fluids allow to obtain higher power efficiency of Brayton cycle only if conversions without taking into account internal losses are considered. For the cycle that takes into account the compression conversion efficiency in the compressor and expansion in the gas turbine, the highest efficiency was obtained for the perfluoropentane working medium and other substances with relatively high molecular weight values. However, even for the cycle using internal heat recovery, the thermal efficiency of the Brayton cycle did not exceed 7%.The paper discusses the feasibility, effectiveness and validity of a gas turbine power plant, operated according to the Brayton comparative cycle in order to develop low-potential waste heat (160◦C) and convert it into electricity. Fourteen working fluids, mainly with organic origin have been examined. It can be concluded that low molecular weight working fluids allow to obtain higher power efficiency of Brayton cycle only if conversions without taking into account internal losses are considered. For the cycle that takes into account the compression conversion efficiency in the compressor and expansion in the gas turbine, the highest efficiency was obtained for the perfluoropentane working medium and other substances with relatively high molecular weight values. However, even for the cycle using internal heat recovery, the thermal efficiency of the Brayton cycle did not exceed 7%.
The climatic change on King George Island (KGI) in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica, in the years of 1948–2011 are presented. In the reference period, a statistically significant increase in the air temperature (0.19 ° C/10 years, 1.2 ° C in the analysed period) occurred along with a decrease in atmospheric pressure (−0.36 hPa/10 years, 2.3 hPa). In winter time, the warming up is more than twice as large as in summer. This leads to decrease in the amplitude of the annual cycle of air temperature. On KGI, there is also a warming trend of daily maximum and daily minimum air temperature. The evidently faster increase in daily minimum results in a decrease of the diurnal temperature range. The largest changes of air pressure took place in the summertime (−0.58 hPa/10 years) and winter (−0.34 hPa/10 years). The Semiannual Oscillation pattern of air pressure was disturbed. Climate changes on KGI are correlated with changing surface temperatures of the ocean and the concentration of sea ice. The precipitation on KGI is characterised by substantial variability year to year. In the analysed period, no statistically significant trend in atmospheric precipitation can be observed. The climate change on KGI results in substantial and rapid changes in the environment, which poses a great threat to the local ecosystem.
In the paper, a research on effects of baking temperature on chromite sand base of moulding sands bonded with sodium silicate is presented. Pure chromite sand and its chromite-based moulding sand prepared with use of sodium silicate were subjected to heating within 100 to 1200 °C. After cooling-down, changes of base grains under thermal action were determined. Chromite moulding sand was prepared with use of 0.5 wt% of domestic made, unmodified sodium silicate (water-glass) grade 145. After baking at elevated temperatures, creation of rough layer was observed on grain surfaces, of both pure chromite sand and that used as base of a moulding sand. Changes of sand grains were evaluated by scanning microscopy and EDS analyses. It was found that changes on grain surfaces are of laminar nature. The observed layer is composed of iron oxide (II) that is one of main structural components of chromite sand. In order to identify changes in internal structure of chromite sand grains, polished sections were prepared of moulding sand hardened with microwaves and baked at elevated temperatures. Microscopic observations revealed changes in grains structure in form of characteristically crystallised acicular particles with limited magnesium content, intersecting at various angles. EDS analysis showed that these particles are composed mostly of chromium oxide (III) and iron oxide (II). The temperature above that the a.m. changes are observed in both chromite-based moulding sand and in pure chromite sand. The observed phenomena were linked with hardness values and mass of this sand.
A two-year-long data set of air temperature from four different altitudes above Petuniabukta, central Spitsbergen, was analysed in order to assess the near-surface temperature lapse rates and the relative frequency of air temperature inversion occurrence. From August 2013 to July 2015, air temperatures at adjacent altitudes in Petuniabukta were strongly correlated. The near-surface lapse rates in all three layers differed significantly both from the average lapse rate in the international standard atmosphere (0.65°C 100 m-1) and the lapse rate calculated by linear regression. A pronounced annual cycle was detected in the lowermost air layer (from 23 to 136 m a.s.l.) with a variable near-surface lapse rate in the winter months, while an annual cycle was not apparent in the air layers above 136 m a.s.l. The lowermost layer was also characterized by a notable daily cycle in near-surface lapse rate in spring and autumn. Air temperature inversions occurred in up to 80% of the study period in the air layer below 136 m a.s.l., with the relative frequency being much lower in the other two air layers. The air temperature inversions lasted as long as 139 hours. A case study revealed that one of the strongest air temperature inversions was connected to an area of lower pressure gradients at the 850-hPa pressure level.