The Old Believers appeared on the Polish territories in 18th century. They are a bilingual community. They use Russian dialect and Polish language, depending on communicative situation. Polish influence on the Old Believers’ dialect increased after two World Wars, when they became separated from their co-religionists in other countries and had more often contacts with Polish neighbours. In Old Believers’ Russian dialect more and more Polish elements are noticable, especially in lexis. In the technical terminology there are a lot of borrowings from Polish language caused above all by the civilization progress. The aim of this article is to analyze the lexis borrowed from Polish language in the field of technics in Russian dialect of the Old Believers of Suwałki-Augustów Region and furthermore confront it with the material gathered in “Słownik gwary staroobrzędowców mieszkających w Polsce” (1980 a.d.). The gathered material was analyzed paying special attention to assimilation to the Russian dialect.
Lexical knowledge sources are indispensable for research, education and general information. The transition of the reference works to the digital world has been a gradual one. This paper discusses the basic principles and structure of knowledge presentation, as well as user access and knowledge acquisition with specific consideration of contributions in German. The ideal reference works of the future should be interactive, optimally adapted to the user, reliable, current and quotable.
The paper points out the role of terms in academic activity, particularly in onomastics. A survey of onomastic terms present in Polish dictionaries of linguistic terminology and onomastic encyclopaedias has been made. The need has been stressed to follow the rules of terminography in every dictionary of terms. Some normative terms, such as official name, dialectal name, minority name, have been suggested to be included as additional entries in glossaries of onomastic terms.
The changes in the paralinguistic (social, economic, cultural) and linguistic sphere influence the quantitative and qualitative changes in a categorically diversified onomastic resource and the communicative flow of its elements on three levels of linguistic contact — nationwide, local and individual. The flow is additionally determined in the sphere of spontaneous everyday communication and in higher communicative functions (official linguistic behaviour). The accumulation of determinants which allow the usage of appropriate names and appellative forms (official and unofficial, e.g. diminutives, feminisms) involves the application of cumulative research methods, including psycho-, socio- and pragmalinguistic description of proper names functioning in communication. The contemporary theory of discourse in its three dimensions — formal, functional and interactional gives this possibility. It also requires the constant specification and standardization of Neoslavonic onomastic terminology.
The paper aims to discuss the specific characteristics of Italian employment contract from a linguistic point of view as well as from the point of view of the translation. First of all, the employment contract as a legal document will be discussed in regard to the text classifi cation proposed by Sabatini (1990). Moreover, the general typology of Italian and Polish employment contracts will be taken into consideration. The analysis is complemented by Polish equivalents of the main Italian terms and phrases used usually in the employment contact. The fi nal comments will be dedicated to the issue of translation procedures used for dealing with the translation shifts proposed by Vinay and Darbelnet (1958) and Cosmai (2007).