In this article I present the main assumptions and discuss issues of pedagogy as a science and the field of education during a special meeting of the Committee of the Academy of Pedagogical Sciences at Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznan. I focus on the institutional leaders in science teaching who are rectors and deans of Faculties of Education in Poland. Moreover, they are co-authors of relevant teaching and research solutions in science teaching. In the age of growing crisis in the academic community we can, as educators, discuss how no to be to be surprised by pathogenic processes and events, but how to be able to counteract them. Furthermore, how to show representatives of other academic disciplines and structures of learning, how to deal with common to us problems.
The consciousness of a crisis of university inclines towards its reformation. In the thinking about its revival it is necessary to take into account the archetypical idea behind university, traditions to date, contemporary conditions and visions of the future. It is also getting indispensable to take into consideration such values that ought to steer the development of university in the framework of global civilization. The tasks of university are as follows: 1) to conduct research in striving for truth in the conditions of autonomy and freedom, as well as responsibility for the present day and the future of man; 2) to educate students, which introduces them in the world of science and life, as well as teaches them to be responsible; 3) to practice public science which is present in debates undertaking to solve vital social problems. The academic community and its elites should defend the conception of university against the dictate of their political and economic counterparts who attempt to impose the idea of an entrepreneurial university which produces a utilitarian knowledge and “human principles”.
Cartography is the study and practice of making maps. Although originally defined for Earth, the term is also a perfect description of the aims of the VIPERS team, whose members include Polish astronomers.
Measuring cosmic distances is one of the most important, fascinating and difficult challenges facing astronomers today. The objective is not just to identify the distances between objects in space – such distances are also key to finding out how our Universe is structured and how it evolves. They also evidence the amount of energy emitted by objects and makes it possible to determine their nature.
In 2014 the Jagiellonian University celebrated its 650th anniversary. The description of the university’s history on the jubilee website, however, makes no mention of the first female students – even though it was the first Polish university to welcome women.
American higher education work in an era of academic capitalism. Addressing the financial support to students, not to universities and accreditation of colleges by private institutions create mechanisms of that capitalism. It is a strategy of financial revolution in higher education. There are more and more university presidents from the “managerial class”. All academics have lost their professional security. Students are academically adrift and their learning is limited. For that reasons universities have to fulfill partly new roles: sorting students. Weaving them and cooling those, who were promised to much.
With this paper we try to contribute to the debate on the nature of research intensive universities and the chances to create this type of institution in Poland. Research universities are presented as elite, flagship institutions for educating students mostly at the doctoral level and to produce the bulk of the research output. Examples of world-class research intensive universities from various countries are presented. It is shown that intensified competition among universities exists to prove their performance through global university league tables or ranking exercises and it is discussed whether Poland is at the stage to create at least one such institution playing important role in that competition. We argue that the establishment of a University of the Polish Academy of Sciences could be a solution. This University stands to become a unique research institution in Poland and one of very few establishments of its type in Central and Eastern Europe. The University will conduct scientific research and provide programs of the highest standard, exploiting the research and teaching potential of the PAS institutes as well as the competence and experience of members of the Academy's corporation. It is intended as a higher education institution with a decentralized organizational structure, based on the PAS research institutes. The University of the Polish Academy of Sciences will have a quality-boosting impact on the PAS institutes as well as initiate their consolidation and reorganization in the field of teaching.
The essay critically approaches the current state and directions of changes in the university education. We see the critical point in the unconditioned endorsement by the university of the market values of intense competitiveness of global economy and the cult of the pro-market education which is its inevitable result. We would like to argue that although the university must respect economic conditions and limitations, nevertheless we fear that the ongoing process of corporatization of the university with its management strategies such as cutting costs, scanning environments for competitive purposes, re-engineering highly competitive efficiency criteria for the staff will bring about a neglect of the humanist values rooted in intellectual and social sensibility and hence undermine the social mission of the university which, apart from professional skills and research, must cultivate intellectual pluralism by providing space for intelligent conversation, sharing critical views of the present state of things thus fostering social criticism and the spirit of responsible dissent.
In the first part of these remarks I recall such examples from the past of the mentioned political agenda that might be a sort of warning for a too far reaching overtaking of higher education institutions by political powers. In the second part, however, I recall contemporary ways and forms of political agenda, which I call “velvet” revolutions and I also see them as threat to fulfill by universities their social missions. The remarks and evaluations formulated by me at the end are certainly not to be considered. These remarks are being treated by me as a voice in the discussion on the issue how much politics might be or has to be in the life of universities, what kind of politics do any good to them and what kind brings more damage.
Academic culture is a set of rules (norms and values) regulating the institution of the university. The central component of academic culture is autonomy both in the sense of independence from external interference and the capacity to decide on research, teaching and organization of the university. Autonomy is endangered by the interference in academic culture of other cultural complexes characteristic for modern society: corporate culture, business culture, bureaucratic culture, financial culture, consumer culture. The resulting cultural clash is the reason for current crisis of the university. The defense of autonomy is the ethical and professional duty of scholars.
The author of the article is aimed at reconstructing the concept of academic freedom as a base of university existence, regarding both its didactic and research function. The author takes into account various definitions of academic freedom and analyzes areas and dimensions, especially its institutional (university) and individual (professor) level. He reconstructs also controversies which are exposed in discussions on academic freedom and arguments regarding its limitations. He considers the phenomenon of actuarial policy and various forms of academic competition. He puts question: does the concept of academic freedom can be still vivid in the time of growing commercialization of didactits and research functions of contemporary university as well as its growing dependance on economy and politics?
In the Act on Revitalization of 9 October 2015, for the first time in Poland, the legal act introduced the necessity to apply the principles of universal design (Article 3 paragraph 2 point 3). The practice of investment processes in crisis areas shows that the requirements set out in the Act are not properly implemented. Regeneration processes require attention to improve the quality of life of residents. The article presents issues related to the implementation of universal design principles during revitalization processes. There is a noticeable lack of interest in this issue despite the fact that it is one of the three tasks set before local governments in the Revitalization Act, after social participation and support for people at risk of exclusion in the area of housing. The reasons for this state should be seen in a small knowledge of the issue, deficiencies in the educational process of designers and poor control on the part of local governments and central authorities. This is due to conservation conditions, which often misinterpret the right to protect cultural heritage. The self-government as its own task should guarantee the possibility of using the positive effects of the revitalization process, in particular the implementation of residents’ rights to an independent and dignifi ed life, which is required by the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities.
The article is an answer to questions concerning values, goals and functions of the University in the era of globalization changes that enforce changes in the area of higher education. The author emphasizes the need for balanced development of science, humanities and social sciences as a condition for preserving research independence, as well as the importance of cooperation, both in research and in the „shaping of autonomous institutionalism” of the University (Roggero). The article provides an analysis of the commercialization process of research results, based on data from Polish and foreign studies, and indicates its various forms and social costs. This is a study of the University's condition in the face of the growing importance of transnational corporations, regulating not only the flow of capital, but also the distribution of scientific prestige and appropriating in a different way the effects of academic work. The metaphor of the university as a enterprise/knowledge factory visualizes the errors in perceiving the role that it should play. It proves that research and teaching is not the production and transmission of knowledge, but the creation and sharing of knowledge. In this dialogical process, the idea of a university understood as a community of educators and taught in pursuit of truth is achieved most fully, not for glory, for making profit or for gaining a competitive advantage.
The author has presented a short history of the Economic Geography Department of the Cracow University of Economics in the years 1958–2018. The scientific and didactic staff, its basic journalistic achievements and the main didactic activity were presented.
The author reviews the main elements of Richard Münch’s academic capitalism theory. By introducing categories like “audit university” or “entrepreneurial university,” the German sociologist critically sets the present academic management model against the earlier, modern-era conception of academic research as an “exchange of gifts.” In the sociological and psychological sense, the latter is a social communication structure rooted in traditional social lore, for instance the potlatch ceremonies celebrated by some North-American Indian tribes which Marcel Mauss described. Münch shows the similarities between that old “gift exchanging” model and the contemporary one with its focus on the psychosocial fundamentals of scientific praxis, and from this gradually derives the academic capitalism conception. His conclusion is the critical claim that science possesses its own, inalienable axiological autonomy and anthropological dimension, which degenerate in result of capitalism’s “colonisation” of science by means of state authority and money (here Münch refers to Jürgen Habermas’s philosophical argumentation). The author also offers many of his own reflections on the problem, which allows Münch’s analyses to be viewed in a somewhat broader context.
The authors of this paper examine the ancient concepts of translatio, imitatio and aemulatio. The text goes over some problems of the heritage of antiquity and its reception in European culture of the early modern period. These questions were discusssed during the international conference “Heredes et scrutatores. Attitudes towards Antiquity in the Renaissance and in the Early Modern Period”, which was held on 19–20 May 2016 at the University of Warsaw. It celebrated the 200th anniversary of classical studies at this university. The conference seeked to explore the changing attitudes towards the heritage of classical antiquity in post-classical European culture. The scholars participating in the meeting tried to (re)examine the diversity of these attitudes in the period between the Late Middle Ages and Early Modern Times and to reflect on a number of related problems, among which were the theoretical viewpoints that had been suggested to describe this diversity. One of them, which gave its name to this conference, distinguishes between two general approaches: that of the “users”, concentrated on adapting the classical legacy by means of procedures inherited from the ancient Romans, and that of the “researchers”, which replaced the former procedures with ones typical of scholarly cognition. The participants discussed theoretical issues and concrete cases illustrating the ways that the intellectuals of the Renaissance and Early Modern Times approached the Greek and the Roman legacy. The connections between past and present attitudes towards antiquity have also been be the subject of the debate.
This paper examines highly paid academics – or “top earners” – employed across universities in ten European countries based on a large-scale international survey data of the academic profession. It examines the relationships between salaries and academic behaviors and productivity, as well as the predictors of being an academic top earner. While in the Anglo-Saxon countries the university research mission traditionally pays off at an individual level, in Continental Europe it pays off only in combination with administrative and related duties. Seeking future financial rewards through research does not seem to be a viable strategy in Europe – but seeking satisfaction in research through solving research puzzles is also getting difficult, with the growing emphasis on “relevance” and “applicability” of research. Thus both the traditional “investment motivation” and “consumption motivation” for research are ever-harder to be followed, with policy implications. The primary data come from 8,466 usable cases. This paper examines change processes in Western Europe and in Poland (in a European context) and its main reference point is American higher education scholarship; it is, on the theoretical plane, the founder of the conceptual frameworks to study academic salaries, and, in practical terms, the US science systems heavily draws on European scientific talents.
In the historical and educational literature, there is no text, which present the history of the academic colony of the University of Cracow in Lviv from its inception in the 17th century to the next transformation at the end of the 18th century. This paper is based on manuscript archival materials collected at the Jagiellonian University, the Archbishop of Lviv, in including consistory files, and also in printed annals, published official magazines of the city of Lviv, printed works of the teaching staff and students of the colony. As a result of many years of collecting source facts, the following was reconstructed: establishment of an academic colony in 1608, directors, some auxiliary teachers, pupils’ case, their activity in the city and the church in Lviv, school building and conditions for teaching, scattered grounds for financing teachers, pupils and building maintenance school. The article is the first part of the school’s history, the archival material owned by the author, after completing the query in the Lviv city archives, allows the author to write its history in the 18th century. This is the third academic colony (Chełmno, Nowy Sącz) presenting by the author.
This article first surveys the current, somewhat unproductive state of research into potential universals of translation. Then it considers in specific the “first translational response universal” (Malmkjær 2011), suggesting that it may be rooted in the cognitive mechanism of priming. Empirical evidence for this is next sought in the analysis of a set of 34 novice translations of the same short passage from Swedish into Polish, which are shown to exhibit the effects of priming to a considerable extent. Overall, the objective is to illustrate a possible way of investigating postulated translation universals: first identifying a cluster of cognitive mechanisms to motivate the universal, then determining the linguistic structures that are concrete manifestations of such mechanisms in languages meeting in translation. The proposed research procedure thus proceeds from a cognitive process to a detailed language structure, allowing for the examination of phenomena observed in the “third code” on the supra-cultural level.
For development of the knowledge-based economy, potential and quality of university education are an important factors to increase a competitiveness of local, regional, national and international scales. To shape the modern economy, the development of university education and studies corresponding with contemporary socio-economic challenges play an important role. As a result, the formation of scientific and academic centres, which are the basic elements of knowledge-based of economy, determines the improvement of the human resources quality and the increase in innovativeness of spatial systems on various scales. The author has discussed the issue of changes in university education in Poland and its role in socio-economic activation of regional systems, and also defined the structure of major studies in regional (voivodship) systems. This paper research has initiated wider investigations which aim will be to answer to what extent the actual university education structure corresponds to contemporary and future socio-economic needs and competences. this level of education in Poland has to face with the growing globalization processes and increasing spatial competitiveness, not only in a regional scale, but also in the national and international ones, and actual reforms of Polish education and science system.
Exegesis of Matthew 16:13-20, made in the light of historical and doctrinal terms occurred after 70 years in Judea, in which the evangelist Matthew was presented with its Judeo-Christian Church, indicates clearly existing in the text emphasis and related them to universalist objectives . They primarily guided him to define the saving message of Jesus the Risen of being Christological and Ecclesiological, in the final version edited by himself, in the Gospel of the Kingdom at the turning point for the fate of the Palestinian Church. The scene from Caesarea Philippi is edited in a manner which allows Peter to run his church in the Hellenistic world in order to gain complete doctrinal confidence that the same power of binding and resolving in heaven and on earth which he received from Jesus Simon Barjon to exercise it in the land of Israel, is also possessed by Simon Peter to celebrate it with the same saving efficiency in the lands of the heathen. Without this doctrinal certainty, it would probably be impossible to guarantee its further Judeo-Christian existence in the world of ethnochristians and gentiles.
The goal of this article is to discuss dynamics hindering women's career in managerial roles of Polish comprehensive universities. Although female academics outnumber their male peers, they remain underrepresented in the management at universities. In the last 30 years, only 2 women held a position of rector. In this article, we analyse the reasons for this phenomenon on the basis of qualitative research performed with the use of individual in-depth interviews, preceded by the analysis of career advancement of individual women. The research has been carried out on a group of 15 women, which currently occupy position of vice-rector or have had position of rector in the past. The results of the analysis show that occupying a position of vice-rector is a key factor determining the chance to obtain a position of rector. This stage of the career helps to consolidate the chosen professional role in the organisation (3 main roles were recognised: expert, researcher and activist). Depending on the type, these roles give greater or lesser opportunities for self-identification in the position of a leader, for adapting to collegial culture of university and as a consequence becoming a rector.
The aim of the paper is to show the scale of preparing habilitation reviews ending with untypical conclusions and the impact of such reviews on the outcome of habilitation proceedings in one discipline – sociology. The general analysis of the outcome of the review comes down to the final conclusion; the detailed analysis proposed by the author also takes into account the degree of strengthening or weakening of this conclusion. In particular, the weakening of a positive conclusion may indicate that the actual evaluation of the work is rather negative and differs from the nominal evaluation. The article begins with a theoretical introduction in which the author analyzes the legal aspects of reviewing the achievements to the habilitation degree, the imperfections of this process indicated in the literature, and briefly refers to American and Polish research in the field of pragmatics of RPT reviews, which provide tools to interpret the mechanism of formulating unobvious conclusions. A study conducted on a sample of 130 habilitation cases in sociology from 2012–2019 showed that the results of the pro-ceedings were rather consistent with the results of the reviews. Nevertheless, a set of “border proceedings” have been identified that have received reviews with a low degree of certainty (weakened) or some, but divergent, degree of certainty. In their case, the outcome of the proceedings was unpredictable, i.e. proceedings with the same review configuration ended in different ways.
The main purpose of this paper is to describe the specificity of Polish academic institutions that employ foreign-born scholars. The empirical material comes from a two-year research project, involving 100 qualitative in-depth interviews with “international” employees and additional 20 with their Polish colleagues, mainly supervisors. The study demonstrated that the organizational units of universities and research institutes employing foreign-born scholars could be divided into four basic types: language departments, “special units” (focused on international cooperation or advanced studies), laboratories, and the “islands.” An additional category is composed of the centers where the academic staff shortage is a serious problem, but this category, unlike the others, is likely to be seriously affected by the ongoing higher education reform. The article adopts a neo-institutional perspective, which enables to analyze these types of units in terms of institutional work (including construction of normative networks, defining, vesting), done by the foreign-born employees.
The paper analyzes the changing public-private dynamics in higher education in Poland in 1990-2016 and beyond, focusing on the processes of internal and external de-privatization of the system. De-privatization of higher education – viewed also as its republicization – is caused by declining demographics and may lead to the demise of the largely demand-absorbing private higher education. Poland is shown as moving against the two powerful global trends related to privatization: private sector growth and increasing reliance on cost-sharing. Data related to funding and provision in 1990-2005 (expansion) and 2006 and beyond (contraction) are analyzed in detail, and policy implications of ongoing and expected changes are discussed.