One of the most important issues that power companies face when trying to reduce time and cost maintenance is condition monitoring. In electricity market worldwide, a significant amount of electrical energy is produced by synchronous machines. One type of these machines is brushless synchronous generators in which the rectifier bridge is mounted on rotating shafts. Since bridge terminals are not accessible in this type of generators, it is difficult to detect the possible faults on the rectifier bridge. Therefore, in this paper, a method is proposed to facilitate the rectifier fault detection. The proposed method is then evaluated by applying two conventional kinds of faults on rectifier bridges including one diode open-circuit and two diode open-circuit (one phase open-circuit of the armature winding in the auxiliary generator in experimental set). To extract suitable features for fault detection, the wavelet transform has been used on recorded audio signals. For classifying faulty and healthy states, K-Nearest Neighbours (KNN) supervised classification method was used. The results show a good accuracy of the proposed method.
Nowadays a geometrical surface structure is usually evaluated with the use of Fourier transform. This type of transform allows for accurate analysis of harmonic components of surface profiles. Due to its fundamentals, Fourier transform is particularly efficient when evaluating periodic signals. Wavelets are the small waves that are oscillatory and limited in the range. Wavelets are special type of sets of basis functions that are useful in the description of function spaces. They are particularly useful for the description of non-continuous and irregular functions that appear most often as responses of real physical systems. Bases of wavelet functions are usually well located in the frequency and in the time domain. In the case of periodic signals, the Fourier transform is still extremely useful. It allows to obtain accurate information on the analyzed surface. Wavelet analysis does not provide as accurate information about the measured surface as the Fourier transform, but it is a useful tool for detection of irregularities of the profile. Therefore, wavelet analysis is the better way to detect scratches or cracks that sometimes occur on the surface. The paper presents the fundamentals of both types of transform. It presents also the comparison of an evaluation of the roundness profile by Fourier and wavelet transforms.
Wavelet transform becomes a more and more common method of processing 3D signals. It is widely used to analyze data in various branches of science and technology (medicine, seismology, engineering, etc.). In the field of mechanical engineering wavelet transform is usually used to investigate surface micro- and nanotopography. Wavelet transform is commonly regarded as a very good tool to analyze non-stationary signals. However, to analyze periodical signals, most researchers prefer to use well-known methods such as Fourier analysis. In this paper authors make an attempt to prove that wavelet transform can be a useful method to analyze 3D signals that are approximately periodical. As an example of such signal, measurement data of cylindrical workpieces are investigated. The calculations were performed in the MATLAB environment using the Wavelet Toolbox.
A phoneme segmentation method based on the analysis of discrete wavelet transform spectra is described. The localization of phoneme boundaries is particularly useful in speech recognition. It enables one to use more accurate acoustic models since the length of phonemes provide more information for parametrization. Our method relies on the values of power envelopes and their first derivatives for six frequency subbands. Specific scenarios that are typical for phoneme boundaries are searched for. Discrete times with such events are noted and graded using a distribution-like event function, which represent the change of the energy distribution in the frequency domain. The exact definition of this method is described in the paper. The final decision on localization of boundaries is taken by analysis of the event function. Boundaries are, therefore, extracted using information from all subbands. The method was developed on a small set of Polish hand segmented words and tested on another large corpus containing 16 425 utterances. A recall and precision measure specifically designed to measure the quality of speech segmentation was adapted by using fuzzy sets. From this, results with F-score equal to 72.49% were obtained.
Signal analysis performed during surface texture measurement frequently involves applying the Fourier transform. The method is particularly useful for assessing roundness and cylindrical profiles. Since the wavelet transform is becoming a common tool for signal analysis in many metrological applications, it is vital to evaluate its suitability for surface texture profiles. The research presented in this paper focused on signal decomposition and reconstruction during roundness profile measurement and the effect of these processes on the changes in selected roundness profile parameters. The calculations were carried out on a sample of 100 roundness profiles for 12 different forms of mother wavelets using MATLAB. The use of Spearman's rank correlation coefficients allowed us to evaluate the relationship between the two chosen criteria for selecting the optimal mother wavelet.
A traditional frequency analysis is not appropriate for observation of properties of non-stationary signals. This stems from the fact that the time resolution is not defined in the Fourier spectrum. Thus, there is a need for methods implementing joint time-frequency analysis (t/f) algorithms. Practical aspects of some representative methods of time-frequency analysis, including Short Time Fourier Transform, Gabor Transform, Wigner-Ville Transform and Cone-Shaped Transform are described in this paper. Unfortunately, there is no correlation between the width of the time-frequency window and its frequency content in the t/f analysis. This property is not valid in the case of a wavelet transform. A wavelet is a wave-like oscillation, which forms its own “wavelet window”. Compression of the wavelet narrows the window, and vice versa. Individual wavelet functions are well localized in time and simultaneously in scale (the equivalent of frequency). The wavelet analysis owes its effectiveness to the pyramid algorithm described by Mallat, which enables fast decomposition of a signal into wavelet components.
The main objective of this paper is to produce an applications-oriented review covering infrared techniques and devices. At the beginning infrared systems fundamentals are presented with emphasis on thermal emission, scene radiation and contrast, cooling techniques, and optics. Special attention is focused on night vision and thermal imaging concepts. Next section concentrates shortly on selected infrared systems and is arranged in order to increase complexity; from image intensifier systems, thermal imaging systems, to space-based systems. In this section are also described active and passive smart weapon seekers. Finally, other important infrared techniques and devices are shortly described, among them being: non-contact thermometers, radiometers, LIDAR, and infrared gas sensors.
This paper presents the design process and the results of a novel fall detector designed and constructed at the Faculty of Electronics, Military University of Technology. High sensitivity and low false alarm rates were achieved by using four independent sensors of varying physical quantities and sophisticated methods of signal processing and data mining. The manuscript discusses the study background, hardware development, alternative algorithms used for the sensor data processing and fusion for identification of the most efficient solution and the final results from testing the Android application on smartphone. The test was performed in four 6-h sessions (two sessions with female participants at the age of 28 years, one session with male participants aged 28 years and one involving a man at the age of 49 years) and showed correct detection of all 40 simulated falls with only three false alarms. Our results confirmed the sensitivity of the proposed algorithm to be 100% with a nominal false alarm rate (one false alarm per 8 h).
In this paper, a new lifting wavelet domain audio watermarking algorithm based on the statistical characteristics of sub-band coefficients is proposed. First of all, an original audio signal was segmented and each segment was divided into two sections. Then, the Barker code was used for synchronization, the LWT (lifting wavelet transform) was performed on each section, a synchronization code and a watermark were embedded into the first section and the second section, respectively, by modifying the statistical average value of the sub-band coefficients. The embed strength was determined adaptively according to the auditory masking property. Experiments show that the embedded watermark has better robustness against common signal processing attacks than present algorithms based on LWT and can resist random cropping in particular.
In this paper, a new feature-extraction method is proposed to achieve robustness of speech recognition systems. This method combines the benefits of phase autocorrelation (PAC) with bark wavelet transform. PAC uses the angle to measure correlation instead of the traditional autocorrelation measure, whereas the bark wavelet transform is a special type of wavelet transform that is particularly designed for speech signals. The extracted features from this combined method are called phase autocorrelation bark wavelet transform (PACWT) features. The speech recognition performance of the PACWT features is evaluated and compared to the conventional feature extraction method mel frequency cepstrum coefficients (MFCC) using TI-Digits database under different types of noise and noise levels. This database has been divided into male and female data. The result shows that the word recognition rate using the PACWT features for noisy male data (white noise at 0 dB SNR) is 60%, whereas it is 41.35% for the MFCC features under identical conditions
The paper presented the wavelet transform method for de-noising and singularity detection to soil compressive stress signal. The study results show that the reconstruction signals by the wavelet de-noising keeps the low frequency component at [0, 31.25 Hz] of the original signal and improves the high frequency property at other frequency bands. The impaction time from the start time to resonance time of the stress signals is varies with the depth of the soil. With the increase of times of compaction, the impaction time of the stress is decreasing in every layer. But the speed of reaching compacted status in each layer is different.
In this paper, the stock price-inflation nexus is investigated using the tools of wavelet power spectrum, cross-wavelet power spectrum and cross-wavelet coherency to unravel time and frequency dependent relationships between stock prices and inflation. Our results suggest that for a frequency band between sixteen and thirty two months, there is some evidence of the fisher effect. For rest of the frequencies and time periods however there is no evidence of the fisher effect and it seems stock prices have not played any role as an inflation hedge.
Analysis of power consumption presents a very important issue for power distribution system operators. Some power system processes such as planning, demand forecasting, development, etc.., require a complete understanding of behaviour of power consumption for observed area, which requires appropriate techniques for analysis of available data. In this paper, two different time-frequency techniques are applied for analysis of hourly values of active and reactive power consumption from one real power distribution transformer substation in urban part of Sarajevo city. Using the continuous wavelet transform (CWT) with wavelet power spectrum and global wavelet spectrum some properties of analysed time series are determined. Then, empirical mode decomposition (EMD) and Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT) are applied for the analyses of the same time series and the results showed that both applied approaches can provide very useful information about the behaviour of power consumption for observed time interval and different period (frequency) bands. Also it can be noticed that the results obtained by global wavelet spectrum and marginal Hilbert spectrum are very similar, thus confirming that both approaches could be used for identification of main properties of active and reactive power consumption time series.
It is assumed in the paper that the signals in the enclosure in a transient period are similar to a noise induced by vehicles, tracks, cars, etc. passing by. The components of such signals usually points out specific dynamic processes running during the observation or measurements. In order to choose the best method of analysis of these phenomena, an acoustic field in a closed space with a sound source inside is created. Acoustic modes of this space influence the sound field. Analytically, the modal analyses describe the above mentioned phenomena. The experimental measurements were conducted in the room that might comprise the closed space with known boundary conditions and the sound source Brüel & Kjær Omni-directional type 4292 inside. To record sound signals before the field's steady state was reached, the microphone type 4349 and the 4-channel frontend 3590 had been used. The obtained signals have been analysed by using two approaches, i.e. Fourier and the wavelet analysis, with the emphasis on their efficiency and the capability to recognise important details of the signal. The results obtained for the enclosure might lead to the formulation of a methodology for an extended investigation of a rail track or vehicles dynamics.
Correct incipient identification of an analog circuit fault is conducive to the health of the analog circuit, yet very difficult. In this paper, a novel approach to analog circuit incipient fault identification is presented. Time responses are acquired by sampling outputs of the circuits under test, and then the responses are decomposed by the wavelet transform in order to generate energy features. Afterwards, lower-dimensional features are produced through the kernel entropy component analysis as samples for training and testing a one-against-one least squares support vector machine. Simulations of the incipient fault diagnosis for a Sallen-Key band-pass filter and a two-stage four-op-amp bi-quad low-pass filter demonstrate the diagnosing procedure of the proposed approach, and also reveal that the proposed approach has higher diagnosis accuracy than the referenced methods.
This paper proposes a speech enhancement method using the multi-scales and multi-thresholds of the auditory perception wavelet transform, which is suitable for a low SNR (signal to noise ratio) environment. This method achieves the goal of noise reduction according to the threshold processing of the human ear's auditory masking effect on the auditory perception wavelet transform parameters of a speech signal. At the same time, in order to prevent high frequency loss during the process of noise suppression, we first make a voicing decision based on the speech signals. Afterwards, we process the unvoiced sound segment and the voiced sound segment according to the different thresholds and different judgments. Lastly, we perform objective and subjective tests on the enhanced speech. The results show that, compared to other spectral subtractions, our method keeps the components of unvoiced sound intact, while it suppresses the residual noise and the background noise. Thus, the enhanced speech has better clarity and intelligibility.
Despite various speech enhancement techniques have been developed for different applications, existing methods are limited in noisy environments with high ambient noise levels. Speech presence probability (SPP) estimation is a speech enhancement technique to reduce speech distortions, especially in low signalto-noise ratios (SNRs) scenario. In this paper, we propose a new two-dimensional (2D) Teager-energyoperators (TEOs) improved SPP estimator for speech enhancement in time-frequency (T-F) domain. Wavelet packet transform (WPT) as a multiband decomposition technique is used to concentrate the energy distribution of speech components. A minimum mean-square error (MMSE) estimator is obtained based on the generalized gamma distribution speech model in WPT domain. In addition, the speech samples corrupted by environment and occupational noises (i.e., machine shop, factory and station) at different input SNRs are used to validate the proposed algorithm. Results suggest that the proposed method achieves a significant enhancement on perceptual quality, compared with four conventional speech enhancement algorithms (i.e., MMSE-84, MMSE-04, Wiener-96, and BTW).
In this paper, we investigate the implementation schemes of a single-scale wavelet transform processor using magnetostatic surface wave (MSSW) devices. There are three implementation schemes: the interdigital transducer, the meander line transducer and the grating transducer. Because the interdigital transducer has excellent properties, namely, good frequency characteristic and low insertion loss, we use the interdigital transducer as the implementation scheme of a single-scale wavelet transform processor using MSSW device. In the paper, we also present the solutions to the three key problems: the direct coupling between the input transducer and the output transducer, the insertion loss, and the loss characteristics of the gyromagnetic film having an influence on the wavelet transform processor. There are two methods of reducing the direct coupling between the input transducer and the output transducer: increasing the distance between the input transducer and the output transducer, and placing a metal “wall” between the input transducer and the output transducer. There also are two methods of reducing the insertion loss of a single-scale wavelet transform processor using a MSSW device for scale: the appropriate thickness of the yttrium iron garnet (YIG) film and the uniform magnetic field.The smaller the ferromagnetic resonance linewidth of the gyromagnetic film , the smaller the magnetostatic wave propagation loss.
This article presents combined approach to analog electronic circuits testing by means of evolutionary methods (genetic algorithms) and using some aspects of information theory utilisation and wavelet transformation. Purpose is to find optimal excitation signal, which maximises probability of fault detection and location. This paper focuses on most difficult case where very few (usually only input and output) nodes of integrated circuit under test are available.
The one-dimension frequency analysis based on DFT (Discrete FT) is sufficient in many cases in detecting power disturbances and evaluating power quality (PQ). To illustrate in a more comprehensive manner the character of the signal, time-frequency analyses are performed. The most common known time-frequency representations (TFR) are spectrogram (SPEC) and Gabor Transform (GT). However, the method has a relatively low time-frequency resolution. The other TFR: Discreet Dyadic Wavelet Transform (DDWT), Smoothed Pseudo Wigner-Ville Distribution (SPWVD) and new Gabor-Wigner Transform (GWT) are described in the paper. The main features of the transforms, on the basis of testing signals, are presented.
EEG signal-based sleep stage classification facilitates an initial diagnosis of sleep disorders. The aim of this study was to compare the efficiency of three methods for feature extraction: power spectral density (PSD), discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and empirical mode decomposition (EMD) in the automatic classification of sleep stages by an artificial neural network (ANN). 13650 30-second EEG epochs from the PhysioNet database, representing five sleep stages (W, N1-N3 and REM), were transformed into feature vectors using the aforementioned methods and principal component analysis (PCA). Three feed-forward ANNs with the same optimal structure (12 input neurons, 23 + 22 neurons in two hidden layers and 5 output neurons) were trained using three sets of features, obtained with one of the compared methods each. Calculating PSD from EEG epochs in frequency sub-bands corresponding to the brain waves (81.1% accuracy for the testing set, comparing with 74.2% for DWT and 57.6% for EMD) appeared to be the most effective feature extraction method in the analysed problem.
Purpose: to demonstrate the possibility of finding features reliable for more precise distinguishing between normal and abnormal Pattern Electroretinogram (PERG) recordings, in Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT) coefficients domain. To determine characteristic features of the PERG and Pattern Visual Evoked Potential (PVEP) waveforms important in the task of precise classification and assessment of these recordings. Material and methods: 60 normal PERG waveforms and 60 PVEPs as well as 47 PERGs and 27 PVEPs obtained in some retinal and optic nerve diseases were studied in the two age groups (<= 50 years, > 50 years). All these signals were recorded in accordance with the guidelines of ISCEV in the Laboratory of Electrophysiology of the Retina and Visual Pathway and Static Perimetry, at the Department and Clinic of Ophthalmology of the Pomeranian Medical University. Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT) was used for the time-frequency analysis and modelling of the PERG signal. Discriminant analysis and logistic regression were performed in statistical analysis of the PERG and PVEP signals. Obtained mathematical models were optimized using Fisher F(n1; n2) test. For preliminary evaluation of the obtained classification methods and algorithms in clinical practice, 22 PERGs and 55 PVEPs were chosen with respect to especially difficult discrimination problems (borderline recordings). Results: comparison between the method using CWT and standard time-domain based analysis showed that determining the maxima and minima of the PERG waves was achieved with better accuracy. This improvement was especially evident in waveforms with unclear peaks as well as in noisy signals. Predictive, quantitative models for PERGs and PVEPs binary classification were obtained based on characteristic features of the waveform morphology. Simple calculations algorithms for clinical applications were elaborated. They proved effective in distinguishing between normal and abnormal recordings. Conclusions: CWT based method is efficient in more precise assessment of the latencies of the PERG waveforms, improving separation between normal and abnormal waveforms. Filtering of the PERG signal may be optimized based on the results of the CWT analysis. Classification of the PERG and PVEP waveforms based on statistical methods is useful in preliminary interpretation of the recordings as well as in supporting more accurate assessment of clinical data.
This paper presents mechanical fault detection in squirrel cage induction motors (SCIMs) by means of two recent techniques. More precisely, we have analyzed the rolling element bearing (REB) faults in SCIM. Rolling element bearing faults constitute a major problem among different faults which cause catastrophic damage to rotating machinery. Thus early detection of REB faults in SCIMs is of crucial importance. Vibration analysis is among the key concepts for mechanical vibrations of rotating electrical machines. Today, there is massive competition between researchers in the diagnosis field. They all have as their aim to replace the vibration analysis technique. Among them, stator current analysis has become one of the most important subjects in the fault detection field. Motor current signature analysis (MCSA) has become popular for detection and localization of numerous faults. It is generally based on fast Fourier transform (FFT) of the stator current signal. We have detailed the analysis by means of MCSA-FFT, which is based on the stator current spectrum. Another goal in this work is the use of the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) technique in order to detect REB faults. In addition, a new indicator based on the MCSA-DWT technique has been developed in this study. This new indicator has the advantage of expressing itself in the quantity and quality form. The acquisition data are presented and a comparative study is carried out between these recent techniques in order to ensure a final decision. The proposed subject is examined experimentally using a 3 kW squirrel cage induction motor test bed.
Noise induced hearing loss (NIHL) is a serious occupational related health problem worldwide. The A-wave impulse noise could cause severe hearing loss, and characteristics of such kind of impulse noise in the joint time-frequency (T-F) domain are critical for evaluation of auditory hazard level. This study focuses on the analysis of A-wave impulse noise in the T-F domain using continual wavelet transforms. Three different wavelets, referring to Morlet, Mexican hat, and Meyer wavelets, were investigated and compared based on theoretical analysis and applications to experimental generated A-wave impulse noise signals. The underlying theory of continuous wavelet transform was given and the temporal and spectral resolutions were theoretically analyzed. The main results showed that the Mexican hat wavelet demonstrated significant advantages over the Morlet and Meyer wavelets for the characterization and analysis of the A-wave impulse noise. The results of this study provide useful information for applying wavelet transform on signal processing of the A-wave impulse noise.