The paper presents a simple, systematic and novel graphical method which uses computer graphics for prediction of limit cycles in two dimensional multivariable nonlinear system having rectangular hysteresis and backlash type nonlinearities. It also explores the avoidance of such self-sustained oscillations by determining the stability boundary of the system. The stability boundary is obtained using simple Routh Hurwitz criterion and the incremental input describing function, developed from harmonic balance concept. This may be useful in interconnected power system which utilizes governor control. If the avoidance of limit cycle or a safer operating zone is not possible, the quenching of such oscillations may be done by using the signal stabilization technique which is also described. The synchronization boundary is laid down in the forcing signal amplitudes plane using digital simulation. Results of digital simulations illustrate accuracy of the method for 2×2 systems.
The minimum energy control problem for the positive descriptor discrete-time linear systems with bounded inputs by the use of Weierstrass-Kronecker decomposition is formulated and solved. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the positivity and reachability of descriptor discrete-time linear systems are given. Conditions for the existence of solution and procedure for computation of optimal input and the minimal value of the performance index is proposed and illustrated by a numerical example.
This article presents a hybrid control system for a group of mobile robots. The components of this system are the supervisory controller(s), employing a discrete, event-driven model of concurrent robot processes, and robot motion controllers, employing a continuous time model with event-switched modes. The missions of the robots are specified by a sequence of to-be visited points, and the developed methodology ensures in a formal way their correct accomplishment.
The designing of transmultiplexer systems relies on determining filters for the transmitter and receiver sides of multicarrier communication system. The perfect reconstruction conditions lead to the bilinear equations for FIR filter coefficients. Generally there is no way of finding all possible solutions. This paper describes methods of finding a large family of solutions. Particular attention is devoted to obtaining algorithms useful in fixed-point arithmetic needed to design the integer filters. As a result, the systems perform perfect reconstruction of signals. Additionally, a simple method is presented to transform any transmultiplexer into an unlimited number of different transmultiplexers. Finally, two examples of integer filters that meet perfect reconstruction conditions are shown. The first illustrates a FIR filter which does not require multiplications. The frequency properties of filters and signals are discussed for the second example.
A novel 4-D chaotic hyperjerk system with four quadratic nonlinearities is presented in this work. It is interesting that the hyperjerk system has no equilibrium. A chaotic attractor is said to be a hidden attractor when its basin of attraction has no intersection with small neighborhoods of equilibrium points of the system. Thus, our new non-equilibrium hyperjerk system possesses a hidden attractor. Chaos in the system has been observed in phase portraits and verified by positive Lyapunov exponents. Adaptive backstepping controller is designed for the global chaos control of the non-equilibrium hyperjerk system with a hidden attractor. An electronic circuit for realizing the non-equilibrium hyperjerk system is also introduced, which validates the theoretical chaotic model of the hyperjerk system with a hidden chaotic attractor.
The motion planning problem consists in finding a control function which drives the system to a desired point. The motion planning algorithm derived with an endogenous configuration space approach assumes that the motion takes place in an arbitrary chosen time horizon. This work introduces a modification to the motion planning algorithm which allows to reach the destination point in time, which is shorter than the assumed time horizon. The algorithm derivation relies on the endogenous configuration space approach and the continuation (homotopy) method. To achieve the earlier destination reaching a new formulation of the task map and the task Jacobian are introduced. The efficiency of the new algorithm is depicted with simulation results.
In this article, an engineering/physical dynamic system including losses is analyzed inrelation to the stability from an engineer’s/physicist’s point of view. Firstly, conditions for a Hamiltonian to be an energy function, time independent or not, is explained herein. To analyze stability of engineering system, Lyapunov-like energy function, called residual energy function is used. The residual function may contain, apart from external energies, negative losses as well. This function includes the sum of potential and kinetic energies, which are special forms and ready-made (weak) Lyapunov functions, and loss of energies (positive and/or negative) of a system described in different forms using tensorial variables. As the Lypunov function, residual energy function is defined as Hamiltonian energy function plus loss of energies and then associated weak and strong stability are proved through the first time-derivative of residual energy function. It is demonstrated how the stability analysis can be performed using the residual energy functions in different formulations and in generalized motion space when available. This novel approach is applied to RLC circuit, AC equivalent circuit of Gunn diode oscillator for autonomous, and a coupled (electromechanical) example for nonautonomous case. In the nonautonomous case, the stability criteria can not be proven for one type of formulation, however, it can be proven in the other type formulation.
Abstract The paper mitigates the existing conditions reported in the previous literature for control design of discrete-time linear positive systems. Incorporating an associated structure of linear matrix inequalities, combined with the Lyapunov inequality guaranteing asymptotic stability of discrete-time positive system structures, new conditions are presented with which the state-feedback controllers and the system state observers can be designed. Associated solutions of the proposed design conditions are illustrated by numerical illustrative examples.
Abstract This article presents a control algorithm for nonholonomic mobile manipulators with a simple, geometric holonomic constraint imposed on the robot’s arm. A mathematical model in generalized, auxiliary and linearized coordinates is presented, as well as the constrained dynamics of the robotic system. A position-force control law is proposed, both for the fully known robot’s model, as well as for the model with parametric uncertainty in the dynamics. Theoretical considerations are supported by the results of computer simulations.
Abstract This paper presents the dynamically consistent Jacobian inverse for non-holonomic robotic system, and its application to solving the motion planning problem. The system’s kinematics are represented by a driftless control system, and defined in terms of its input-output map in accordance with the endogenous configuration space approach. The dynamically consistent Jacobian inverse (DCJI) has been introduced by means of a Riemannian metric in the endogenous configuration space, exploiting the reduced inertia matrix of the system’s dynamics. The consistency condition is formulated as the commutativity property of a diagram of maps. Singular configurations of DCJI are studied, and shown to coincide with the kinematic singularities. A parametric form of DCJI is derived, and used for solving example motion planning problems for the trident snake mobile robot. Some advantages in performance of DCJI in comparison to the Jacobian pseudoinverse are discovered.
Abstract Offset-free model predictive control (MPC) algorithms for nonlinear state-space process models, with modeling errors and under asymptotically constant external disturbances, is the subject of the paper. The main result of the paper is the presentation of a novel technique based on constant state disturbance prediction. It was introduced originally by the author for linear state-space models and is generalized to the nonlinear case in the paper. First the case with measured state is considered, in this case the technique allows to avoid disturbance estimation at all. For the cases with process outputs measured only and thus the necessity of state estimation, the technique allows the process state estimation only - as opposed to conventional approach of extended process-and-disturbance state estimation. This leads to simpler design with state observer/filter of lower order and, moreover, without the need of a decision of disturbance placement in the model (under certain restrictions), as in the conventional approach. A theoretical analysis of the proposed algorithm is provided, under applicability conditions which are weaker than in the conventional approach. The presented theory is illustrated by simulation results of nonlinear processes, showing competitiveness of the proposed algorithms.
Abstract This research work proposes a new three-dimensional chaotic system with a hidden attractor. The proposed chaotic system consists of only two quadratic nonlinearities and the system possesses no critical points. The phase portraits and basic qualitative properties of the new chaotic system such as Lyapunov exponents and Lyapunov dimension have been described in detail. Finally, we give some engineering applications of the new chaotic system like circuit simulation and control of wireless mobile robot.
Abstract In the paper construction of a Lyapunov functional for time delay system with both lumped and distributed delay is presented. The Lyapunov functional is determined by means of the Lyapunov matrix. The method of determination of the Lyapunov matrix for time delay system with both lumped and distributed delay is presented. It is given the example illustrating the method.
Abstract The paper presents new approach to estimation of the coefficients of an elementary bilinear time series model (EB). Until now, a lot of authors have considered different identifiability conditions for EB models which implicated different identifiability ranges for the model coefficient. However, all of these ranges have a common feature namely they are significantly narrower than the stability range of the EB model. This paper proposes a simple but efficient solution which makes an estimation of the EB model coefficient possible within its entire stability range.
Abstract This paper investigates the problem of adaptive robust simultaneous stabilization (ARSS) of two dissipative Hamiltonian systems (DHSs), and proposes a number of results on the controller parameterization design. Firstly, an adaptive H∞ control design approach is presented by using the dissipative Hamiltonian structural for the case that there are both external disturbances and parametric uncertainties in two DHSs. Secondly, an algorithm for solving tuning parameters of the controller is proposed using symbolic computation. The proposed controller parameterization method avoids solving Hamilton-Jacobi-Issacs (HJI) equations and the obtained controller is easier as compared to some existing ones. Finally, an illustrative example is presented to show that the ARSS controller obtained in this paper works very well.
Abstract In this paper, a multivariable model based predictive control (MPC) is proposed for the solution of load frequency control (LFC) in a multi-area interconnected power system. The proposed controller is designed to consider time delay, generation rate constraint and multivariable nature of the LFC system, simultaneously. A new formulation of the MPC is presented to compensate time delay. The generation rate constraint is considered by employing a constrained MPC and economic allocation of the generation is further guaranteed by an innovative modification in the predictive control objective function. The effectiveness of proposed scheme is verified through time-based simulations on the standard 39-bus test system and the responses are then compared with the proportional-integral controller. The evaluation of the results reveals that the proposed control scheme offers satisfactory performance with fast responses.
Abstract The stability problems of fractional discrete-time linear scalar systems described by the new model are considered. Using the classical D-partition method, the necessary and sufficient conditions for practical stability and asymptotic stability are given. The considerations are il-lustrated by numerical examples.