The response of the Mi-1 gene to different densities of Meloidogyne incognita race 2 was investigated under controlled conditions. Susceptible and resistant tomato seedlings were inoculated with 25, 50, 100, 200, 400, 1000, 2000, 5000 and 10000 second-stage juveniles of M. incognita. Plants were uprooted 8 weeks after inoculation and the numbers of egg masses and galls on the roots, and second-stage juveniles in 100 g soil per pot were counted. In susceptible plants, there was a correlation between the number of egg masses on roots until 2000 J2 inoculum densities. In resistant plants, when inoculum densities increased, the number of egg masses and galls also increased. The reproduction factor ratio was >1 in the susceptible plant and <1 in the resistant plant. The data showed that the 5000 J2 inoculum was a critical limit, and 10000 J2s were above threshold for resistant plants. The data indicate that densities of M. incognita can seriously affect the performance of the Mi-1 gene.
The present report describes the new occurrence of Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) in cabbage, bean and Malva neglecta plants in Iran. In this study, sequence analyses of a partial RNA dependent RNA polymerases (RdRp) and complete movement protein (MP) and the coat protein (CP) nucleotide sequences of three new ToMV isolates collected from major crop fields in Iran revealed low genetic variation of RdRp gene compared to the CP and MP genes. The different topologies of the phylogenetic trees constructed, using available open reading frame (ORF1), ORF2 and ORF3 sequences from ToMV isolates, indicated different evolutionary constraints in these genomic regions. Statistical analysis also revealed that with the exception of CP other tested ToMV genes were under negative selection and the RdRp gene was under the strongest constraints. According to the phylogenetic tree it can be inferred from the nucleotide sequences of the complete CP and MP genes, that isolates from Iran and Egypt formed separate groups, irrespective of host origin. However, isolates clustered into groups with correlation to geographic origin but not the host. Analysis of the Ks *, Z* and Snn values also indicated genetic differentiation between ToMV populations. The Tajima’s D, Fu and Li’s statistical values were significantly negative for the RdRp gene of the Asian population which suggests the sudden expansion of ToMV in Asia. Taken together, the results indicate that negative selection and genetic drift were important evolutionary factors driving the genetic diversification of ToMV.