The following paper constitutes an investigation of Old Norse contributions to the development of the English language from a lexical-semantic perspective based upon the Proto-Germanic language. Such an approach is intended to offer a much deeper insight into the infl uence exerted by the speech of Vikings upon English, as well as to prove that the modifi cations of the English lexis resulting from the Anglo-Scandinavian contact represent an unusual and extremely rare language phenomenon, and at the same time to reveal surprisingly intriguing histories hidden behind many inconspicuous ordinary lexemes. Moreover, the investigation of Proto-Germanic forms ancestral to particular Scandinavian lexical items and their Anglo-Saxon equivalents may constitute an interesting, though obviously limited, account of the origin of vocabulary used by these two groups of Germanic peoples. Foremost, however, the Common Germanic parent language is hoped to serve as an important background for the analysis, due to its role in enabling all the unique interactions between the Old Norse tongue of the Viking raiders and the Old English speech of the Anglo-Saxons.
The present paper focuses on one of the non-surviving preterite-present verbs, *dugan/deah ‘avail, be of use’. Although the verb exhibited a low frequency, it continued in use throughout Old and Middle English and died out only by the end of the latter period. The exception is some northern dialects and Scottish English, where it still functions as dow ‘to be able, to be willing’. The paper attempts to account for the disappearance of *dugan from English taking under consideration both language internal and external factors. The analysis covers the usage of the verb in question in Old and Middle English as well as its main and peripheral meanings. The comparison of the distribution and sense of *dugan in the two periods shows the plausible causes of its demise, which include semantic bleaching, loss of impersonal constructions from English, and the presence of the closest synonyms of *dugan.
The recipe as a text type has been investigated among others by such scholars as Carroll (1999), Taavitsainen (2001a, 2001b), Görlach (e.g., 2004) and Mäkinen (2006). Schmidt (1994) distinguishes three types of the recipe: the medical, culinary and general. The majority of research conducted so far deals with the medical recipe or treats the text type as a whole without discussing the differences between the particular sub-types. The few studies devoted exclusively to the culinary recipe usually concentrate on its single features (for instance the presence of null objects, as in Massam and Roberge 1989, or Culy 1996). A diachronic study of the recipe shows the evolution that the text type has undergone, since the earlier a recipe the more it varies from what we know today (cf. e.g., Culy 1996, Martilla 2009). The earliest culinary recipes, written in English, come from the late Middle English period. However, following Hieatt and Jones (1986: 859), “the earliest culinary recipes occur in two Anglo-Norman manuscripts” from the beginning of the Middle English period. The aim of the present paper is to compare the Anglo-Norman and Middle English recipes. The former come from the end of the 13th and early 14th centuries, the latter from the 14th and 15th centuries. The study concentrates on some of the formal features of the texts, such as the length of the recipes, and their structure, esp. such recipe components as the heading and the procedure. The corpus can be divided into two parts: (i) the Anglo-Norman database, which consists of 61 recipes (belonging to two collections), and (ii) the Middle English database, composed of 208 recipes which were either translated or derived from the Anglo-Norman ones.
Discourse Completion Test (DCT) became a very popular research instrument after the publication of the infl uential Blum-Kulka & Olshtain’s (1984) paper titled “Requests and apologies: a cross-cultural study of speech act realization patterns (CCSARP)”. Hundreds and thousands of papers employing the data collection instrument, originally developed by Blum-Kulka in 1982, have been published since then, and the controlled elicitation procedure has left a very important mark on the way in which speech acts have been studied cross-culturally. DCT has its strong supporters as well as pronounced enemies, but its contribution to the development of the fi eld cannot be questioned. The paper presents an overview of the advantages and disadvantages of the data collection tool, as well as a synthesis of the most important fi ndings which it has managed to yield so far. Major directions of research are summarized and possible future developments outlined.
The paper examines the use of precision and approximation devices in a subset of English and Polish temporal expressions. Specifi cally, the corpus-based study reported here employs the Cognitive Linguistics analytic construct of “construal” to look into the variable degrees of precision and propositionality as it is coded linguistically in naturally-occurring data. We fi nd that approximation marking in the temporal magnitude representations under scrutiny is more pronounced than precision marking, and there are further conspicuous use asymmetries across languages (Polish vs. English), construal types (cumulative vs. fractional) and granularity levels (seconds/minute vs. minutes/hour).
The McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ), a tool used by specialists to let their patients describe the pain they (have) experience(d), has been rendered into different languages. Most renditions are either literal translations or cultural adaptations. Two examples include the Polish version offered by Sedlak and the Dutch-language version(s) respectively. By drawing on Fleck’s theory of scientifi c facts and thought collectives, an attempt is made to describe how the aforementioned renditions were created and what infl uence the chosen approach has on the fi nal version. Also, a detailed comparison of the Dutch-language version(s) and Sedlak’s Polish version of the MPQ with the original MPQ gives an invaluable insight into the ‘whilerendition processes’ that regulate modifi cations made to the form and content of the translated/adapted text.
This paper examines the discursive construction of persuasiveness in media language. Analysing the corpus consisting of forty reviews of the French comedy “Intouchables” (2011), different invariant characteristics of the genre ‘fi lm review’ are established in the light of two discursive strategies of persuasion based on metonymy and the rhetorical argument from community and authority. As the mentioned strategies assume that the discourse is to infl uence the addressees’ will, decisions and emotions, they refl ect some of the persuasive techniques used in advertising discourse, especially with regard to indirect means of interpretation, suggestion and evaluation. Therefore, different methods for (re)construction of the reality presented in the analysed texts stem from shared values and emotions becoming starting points for the deliberative dimension of the fi lm review. Since our perception of the world is relative, the deployed strategies aim at eliminating the information verifi cation process. Thus, they shape the interpretation of the message towards a set of parameters governing its attractiveness in order to meet the contemporary addresses’ needs.
The aim of this article is to present selected meanings of the Spanish verb of movement entrar focused on the object oriented approach which can raise problems in the automatic translation process because of its ambiguity. The lexicographical description utilised in this analysis has been proposed by Banyś (2002a, 2002b) and constitutes the framework of this paper. Besides, the author shows the differences in presentations of selected meanings of the verb entrar in both Spanish and Polish.
Every language is characterized by numerous phenomena which deserve particular attention. Among such phenomena in the German language, one should undoubtedly mention multi-part word compounds, which in this article are also referred to as multiple complex compounds, tapeworm compounds or tapeworm words. Various questions related to this German language phenomenon made it possible to establish the linguistic and extra-linguistic factors responsible for creating those long and extremely long compounds, the areas in which they are created, their length (depending on the number of letters), their position in the classifi cation of speech parts and their forms. In order to arrive at research conclusions in the present article, I have used the COSMAS II corpus. Examples of multi-part compounds come from FOCUS magazine articles published between January 2000 and June 2014.