The author analyses onymic practices of Poznań–based craftsmen forming guilds. In the names of the inhabitants of Poznań, which stabilised until the end of the 18th century, she seeks traces of the so-called cognomens, i.e. secondary personal designations granted to apprentices who were becoming masters. The names resulted from community acts of creation, which were of ludic nature. Referring to German onymic practices and pointing to the so-called Schleifnamen, the author discusses specific codes of European middle-class culture. She focuses on the transfer of models and patterns to Polish urban communities.
This paper is devoted to the surname changes performed through administrative channels in the interwar period. The research is based on the announcements of the “Official Gazette of the Republic of Poland” in 1929. The author describes main reasons for the decisions of surname changes taking into account characteristics of avoided surnames and chosen demographic tendencies, especially those connected with the age and profession of applicants. People of Jewish origin, Poles and representatives of other nationalities showed different motives for surname changes. Jews most frequently changed their surnames due to legal reasons — they wanted to legalize the unlawful use of a surname of the so-called ritual father. The changes carried out under the motive of assimilation occurred definitely less often. Non-Jewish applicants changed mainly appellative names, especially those derived from words related to animals. After comparing tendencies occurring before and after World War II one concludes that besides legal and assimilation factors which are particular to the pre-war decades (connected with the ethnic, legal and religious situation of the time), the remaining reasons for the surname changes are universal and do not distinguish the pre-war period from that of the post-war.
This article deals with a group of Polish surnames motivated by lexis from the field of salt mining. The analysed surnames are excerpted from “Słownik nazwisk współcześnie w Polsce używanych”, edited by Kazimierz Rymut, as well as from other onomastic compilations. These anthroponyms vary in terms of their origins and linguistic construction. We can distinguish from among these anthroponyms: 1) surnames motivated by impersonal nouns: solanka, solnica, sól, tołpa, żupa; 2) surnames motivated by adjectives: słony, solny; 3) surnames motivated by personal nouns: prasoł, solarz, solnik, warzyc, warzysz, żupnik. The description of particular ‛salt’ surnames, apart from their frequency, includes their geographical distribution, which only in some cases is connected with the location of old salt mines, found mainly in the Lesser Poland (Małopolska).
The subjects of my examination are samples of Silesian surnames derived from the dialectal words determining objects of an animate and inanimate nature. The names of animals were more often used as a base to create the surnames derived from nicknames (derived from appellatives). They were more expressive due to their metaphoric meaning reflecting specific features of people and their evaluations. The signification of botanic (inanimate) nouns used within names was less transparent, however they are thought to refer to an anthropomorphic view of plant behaviour, e.g. dialectal woska/osika [aspen] — trembling. The belief that specific phenomena in nature have supernatural, magic or demonic powers, as well as other difficult to grasp factors, played a very important role in the creation of nicknames and later surnames for the Silesian population. The dialectal “nature” appellatives, which were the source for surnames derived from nicknames, also show that the same dialectal lexeme can have a different meaning in different Polish regions. On the other hand, dialectal lexemes which sound identical in specific Polish regions but differ semantically determine the cultural identity of the micro-speaking country. The same phenomenon can be observed within surnames.
The aim of the article is to bring closer a part of the world’s image that is characteristic for the rural community and the richness and variety of the folk culture inscribed in the proprial structures. As a result, this subject requires an integration of different research methods elaborated within the fields of onomastics and dialectology, including linguistic methods of researching a lingual image of the world. The onymic material is as follows: appellative surnames, originating from nicknames formed from dialectal lexemes, surnames motivated by nominal, dialectal hypocorisms, and finally, surnames formed from matronymic phrases (female names), which are an example of an aberrance of the patriarchal family model. Phonetic and formative phenomena should also be focused upon. These are crucial for certain social micro-communities, and are inscribed in the dialectal inflexions of anthroponyms (which function as separate surnames) and marginally in the female surnames with dialectal formants. Onyms with dialectal motivation refer to, and indirectly point, to the contemporary user, the past realities of living in the village community and the lingual and cultural background.
The paper points out the role of terms in academic activity, particularly in onomastics. A survey of onomastic terms present in Polish dictionaries of linguistic terminology and onomastic encyclopaedias has been made. The need has been stressed to follow the rules of terminography in every dictionary of terms. Some normative terms, such as official name, dialectal name, minority name, have been suggested to be included as additional entries in glossaries of onomastic terms.
The article discusses the issue of proper names defined as symptoms of culture. The first part is of a theoretical character and develops the theory of symptomatology of culture in the context of semiotics (Ch. Peirce), psychology and psychoanalysis (S. Freud and J. Lacan), and onomastics. Symptomatology of culture is a practice of interpreting a certain group of texts of culture and extracting common qualitative traits within them. This is especially in the case of those traits specific to them and often encountered, which could testify to particular serious and deeply-rooted social phenomena leading to their appearance. In the empirical part the author presents a way of using (onymic) symptomatology in practice to research modern culture. She uses the examples of popular psychological and auto-therapeutic guidebooks and treats them as linguistic symptomatic forms of the most significant linguistic and cultural phenomena along with their social causes and functions which are often dysfunctional or abnormal in character. The analysis comprises the most typical conceptual and syntactic constructions encountered in the group.
The common layer of Jewish and Christian name systems consists of biblical names from the Old Testament. The comparison showing how these Old Testament names functioned in both faiths on Podlasie in 15th–16th centuries revealed a close connection between chosen names as well as their popularity over the centuries and cultural traditions formed by faith.
In the article the author discusses the practice associated with name-giving among the residents of Łódź (only Catholics of Polish origin) during the period from the beginning of the seventeenth century to the first half of the nineteenth century. The material was collected from official documents. Habits associated with the first names were treated as a kind of linguistic behaviour that implements a specific communication need of the given community. Observations of these habits show that they oscillate — like any linguistic behaviour — between automatism (and convention) and spontaneity. Conventional measures that should be considered: the use of a limited collection of names that indicate a high degree of stability in subsequent periods and against the background of habits of name-giving in the region and other territories of the former Poland (especially the most popular names of women, e.g. Marianna, Katarzyna, Agnieszka and names of men, e.g. Józef, Jan, Franciszek) and inheritance of names. In contrast, a large number of rare names (names of women, e.g. Idalia, Jokasta, Kasylda, and of men, e.g. Bonawentura, Wit, Witalis) and a visible preference in some families for the usage of rare names, e.g. Damazy, Feliks, Lubomira (including Slavic first names, e.g. Bolesław, Władysław, Bronisław) were included as spontaneous factors. Analysis of the material reveals a tendency to differentiate names depending on the social status of the inhabitants (the representatives of the noble families often used rare names). The author also draws attention to the problem of the diversity of names in Łódź (both in the context of different collections of names and different practices) depending on parameters such as the religion (Catholics, Protestants, Jews) and nationality (Poles, Germans, Czechs) of residents of the city.
Proper names are a relatively stable part of the cultural landscape and cultural traditions that were shaped for decades and centuries. They reflect cultural and social development, the development of spiritual culture, ethnic conditions and relations, language and dialects. This study addresses proper names as psycholinguistic and sociolinguistic elements whose formation and behavior are connected to the onymic space as well as its users. The author presents some circumstances affecting the common cultural values of proper names from the developmental aspect. The cultural and historical value of proper names is evaluated in relation to the objects motivating the names, and their significance to the name-givers. The language competencies of the society, and the modus operandi of proper names are also taken into account in the evaluation. Such values are reflected even in the current use of proper names and the relations of the community to them. The proper name represents the human connection to the place where an individual lives, it is an expression of this relationship and thus presents a peculiar anthropological phenomenon. It is important from the bottom-up perspective of users of the proper name within a regional onymic system. This study addresses the types of changes in oykonyms influenced by political and social changes and their impact on the social value of a proper name, its functions, motivational and communication potential of unofficial historical names. The author understands the proper name as part of tradition, culture and universal human heritage.
The article explores the characteristics of the digital lexicographical processing of Slovak anoikonyms (minor place names). It also adresses the significance of the results of analytical research on anoikonymic lexis and its synthetic processing in the digital dictionary for linguistics, especially in the research of language development and dialectology, for the standardization of geographical names and for other scientific disciplines, as well as wider cultural and social use.
The article aims to demonstrate the role of chrematonymy in a broadly understood contemporary (modern) world culture. The author identifies possible chrematonimic categories and subcategories, discusses their formal and functional properties, and the methods and conditions involved in their creation. The paralexical and communicational phenomena associated with this general class of onymy (e.g. the use of logotypes and extralinguistic signs as well as letter and numeric codes in chrematonymic function) is also discussed.
As part of a general lexical system, urbanonymy reflects cultural phenomena in a broad sense. Alongside often discussed and well-studied lexical units, there are other urbanonyms that have been neglected by researchers for various reasons. Intra-city names containing numbers and figures belong to this neglected category. The aim of the study is to define the role of numbers and figures in Slavic urbanonymic systems. The research material is comprised of the contemporary urbanonymy of cities in Belarus, Russia, Poland and Bulgaria; toponymic dictionaries, electronic resources, tourist guides, maps and atlases have been used. The author demonstrates the shared and specific features of the numbers and figures used in the Belarusian urbanonymic system, as compared to that of Russia, Poland and Bulgaria. The symbolic meaning of these figures in the Slavic urbanomasticon is also discussed. I n spite of the existing differences in the use of names with a numerical component, their composition can be treated as a universal onomastic process. Street names containing figures are part of national culture, as they call to mind important national events or facts, both past and present. This helps individuals cultivate a personal sense of belonging to their native land, thus contributing to the preservation of tradition.
This article aims to present several gender theories related to linguistics which could be useful for contemporary onomastics. The author would also like to demonstrate their applicability (especially the theory by R. Connell) in particular onomastic and textological analyses. In the first part of the article, the author explains that there are numerous ways to define gender within the discipline of gender studies. The author focuses on constructivist and performative approaches, especially on those which understand gender as a discursive and normative category. In the second part, the author presents four gender theories by: J. Butler, R. Connell, J. Scott, and by French feminists (J. Kristeva, H. Cixous), paying attention to their methodological value: understanding gender as a linguistic/performative/semiotic/symbolic/discursive category, as a group of textual practices (games) existing in the dominant culture, and the maintenance or defiance of gender. All of those notions can be related to different groups of onyms and their associated communicative practices. In the third part, the author presents the directions of research conducted in post-1945 Polish anthroponomastics in the field of feminine names (she is particularly interested in lexical, systemic, and contextual (social, historical etc.) mechanisms). In the empirical section, the author formulates her most important assumption concerning research of gender onomastics in the media (Polish women’s magazines): femininities are constructs, primarily of a normative, model-creating function, they produce hierarchy and difference; proper names are important “notional nodes” in those constructs. The analysis claims that there are at least three different femininities: dominant (celebrity), banal (anonymous) and defiant (rebellious). Female proper names are an important part of each construct as their arrangement (name and surname, name alone, diminutive of the name or culturally-loaded name), along with the appropriate description of their bearers, can give an impression of the popularity and familiarity of certain people and of their high social status or of their anonymity, closeness or unreality.This article aims to present several gender theories related to linguistics which could be useful for contemporary onomastics. The author would also like to demonstrate their applicability (especially the theory by R. Connell) in particular onomastic and textological analyses. In the first part of the article, the author explains that there are numerous ways to define gender within the discipline of gender studies. The author focuses on constructivist and performative approaches, especially on those which understand gender as a discursive and normative category. In the second part, the author presents four gender theories by: J. Butler, R. Connell, J. Scott, and by French feminists (J. Kristeva, H. Cixous), paying attention to their methodological value: understanding gender as a linguistic/performative/semiotic/symbolic/discursive category, as a group of textual practices (games) existing in the dominant culture, and the maintenance or defiance of gender. All of those notions can be related to different groups of onyms and their associated communicative practices. In the third part, the author presents the directions of research conducted in post-1945 Polish anthroponomastics in the field of feminine names (she is particularly interested in lexical, systemic, and contextual (social, historical etc.) mechanisms). In the empirical section, the author formulates her most important assumption concerning research of gender onomastics in the media (Polish women’s magazines): femininities are constructs, primarily of a normative, model-creating function, they produce hierarchy and difference; proper names are important “notional nodes” in those constructs. The analysis claims that there are at least three different femininities: dominant (celebrity), banal (anonymous) and defiant (rebellious). Female proper names are an important part of each construct as their arrangement (name and surname, name alone, diminutive of the name or culturally-loaded name), along with the appropriate description of their bearers, can give an impression of the popularity and familiarity of certain people and of their high social status or of their anonymity, closeness or unreality.
Semiotics is the study of how signs are interpreted as references, and names are an obvious type of sign. Semiotics may therefore be considered a useful approach to all types of name study — whether personal names, place names, commercial names, or literary names. As described by C. S. Peirce, an act of reference consists of a sign (e.g., a word, word part, road sign, emblem, or simply a finger) and a referent (e.g., an object, conceptual model, or analytic definition). Furthermore, all acts of reference reflect one or more of three basic types of relationships: 1) similarity, 2) one-to-one correspondence, and/or 3) arbitrary convention. If a sign is interpreted as similar to a referent, it functions iconically. If it is interpreted as a designation or as caused by the referent, it functions indexically. If it is interpreted as referring to two or more indexical referents, it evokes related qualities and thereby functions symbolically. The primary interpretation of names is indexical. However, the purpose of this paper is to show how names, as signs, are also interpreted iconically and symbolically, even at the same time. Different types of names will be used to illustrate these semiotic functions.
This descriptive review presents proper names from the perspective of brain science. It contains the characteristics of individual groups of proper nouns (and common nouns for comparison) and takes account of their neurobiological background. This makes it possible to confirm many opinions on the status of proper names reported by linguists. The Baker and baker paradox and the so-called double dissociation in the search of proper names and common names are discussed in order to confirm (at least in part) the thesis that proper names and common nouns are searched for in the mental lexicon independently of each other. The author also presents the characteristics of proper names to make a thesis about the uniqueness of this class of lexemes. It becomes clear that they are more difficult to learn, especially in patients with neurological deficits, and it takes healthy individuals longer to recall them than to search for common names. Moreover, the recollection of names is associated with more phonological mistakes and is often accompanied by the tip-of-the-tongue syndrome (TOT syndrome), which becomes most evident in elderly patients. The article also presents individual adaptive compensation techniques in impaired naming of objects and faces (e.g. aphasia), which facilitate the recreation of categories within the mental proper name lexicon.