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Abstract

The paper comprises two parts: the first one discusses the history of versus quadratus from antiquity until the times of Walahfrid Strabon, and presents the origin and the history of the trochaic decapentasyllable until our own times, while the second part focuses on the structure and artistry of a famous trochaic decapentasyllable – Angilbertus’s Poem on the Battle of Fontenoy. Versus quadratus is a form of verse which has been practiced in an unbroken form from the 5th–3rd centuries BC until today in the form of a rhythmic poem, a trochaic decapentasyllable. The transformation of the prosodic form of the poem into the rhythmic form took place in the 5th century AD. Initially, the two forms developed in a parallel way, one along with the other, but finally only the trochaic decapentasyllable survived. A characteristic feature of versus quadratus was the isocolon, i.e. the same or a similar number of syllables in the particular elements, and in particular in the first hemistich. Versus quadratus differed from the “ordinary” trochaic septenarius by a great number of sound-based rhetorical figures, especially anaphoras, alliterations, homeoteleutons, and assonances. The trochaic decapentasyllable of Latin poems faithfully maintained the main features of the ancient versus quadratus. From the point of view of the rigours and the distribution of rhythms (i.e. accents), we may observe two branches of its development in the Middle Ages: the first one was considerably free in terms of the division into elements (St. Secundinus), and sometimes even the number of syllables (the so-called Verona School), and the second one, rigorist, was very faithful to the vernacular versus quadratus (De die iudicii, Gallus Anonymus, and Hilary of Orléans). The first branch was marked by a diverse rhythm system, while the second by its considerable homogeneousness with a marked domination of pure trochaic metres. It was as early as in the 13th century at the latest that the trochaic decapentasyllable was first used in vernacular poetry. It played an extremely important role in German, English, Italian, and Polish poetry. In the latter, it was probably inspired by Friedrich Schiller’s famous poem An die Freude. The German and Polish trochaic decapentasyllable continued its medieval models and only to a small extent moved away from the requirements of versus quadratus, leaving the regular division into two hemistiches with the help of the main caesura and dipodia (secondary caesurae), and isocolon. Just like in antiquity and in the Middle Ages, verses were filled with anaphoras, alliterations, and homeoteleutons. The forms of the last ones included rhymes. All the verses rhymed with a single syllable at the end of the second hemistich, and sometimes additionally on the main caesura. Sound-based rhetorical figures and rhymes were more popular in German poetry than in the Polish poetry. It was already in the Middle Ages that poetic experiments on the trochaic decapentasyllable were initiated, consisting in the doubling of some hemistiches (e.g. Stabat Mater dolorosa) or the removal of single elements of the verse (trochaic hendecasyllable). Poem on the Battle of Fontenoy should be located somewhere in-between the two aforementioned branches of the development of the trochaic decapentasyllable: the free one and the rigorist one. An analysis showed that it has a highly innovative and diversified rhythmic structure. In this respect, it surpasses all trochaic decapentasyllables. Despite this diversification, Angilbertus observed the most important rigours of the trochaic decapentasyllable. In the poem under analysis, two verses of Lombardian rhythmic hexameter, including an imitation of the hephthemimeres caesura combined with the trithemimeres caesura, were discovered. Such verses can also be found in the famous epitaphs of the Kings of the Lombards dating to the first half of the 7th century. Some eminent philologists: Wilhelm Meyer and Dag Norberg, encountered serious difficulties with these forms. Angilbertus filled his poem with the language of the Bible; however, he once quoted it via the famous poet Paulinus of Aquileia. Similarly to Paulinus, Angilbertus used school Latin. Neither Paulinus nor Angilbertus can be recognised as poets referring to the experiments of the Verona School. Peter Godman’s opinion on Paulinus in this scope is unjustified. Paulinus and Angilbertus share the mastery of meter and a great respect for language, but also the lyrics of the Vulgate. Paul von Winterfeld noted that when writing his planctus, Angilbertus consciously used certain figures of speech referring to vernacular poetry to underline the expression of the poem. Nevertheless, his was not folk (Mimen) or vernacular poetry – it only referred to its achievements.
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Abstract

The multi-dimensional cooperation between Count Władysław Zamoyski and St. Albert Chmielowski is an important fragment of Zakopane’s tradition. Their activity marked the period of the development of the town, which was on its way to becoming not only a famous spa, but also a centre of the Polish spiritual and political life. Owing to Zamoyski’s assistance, St. Albert erected a hermitage at the foot of the Tatra Mountains, which hosted some eminent artists from the Young Poland period. In line with the vision of Zakopane consistently implemented by Zamoyski, the sanctuary of prayer and contemplation was an indispensable element. There are testimonies according to which Count Zamoyski felt a monastic vocation and discussed the issue with the founder of the Albertine Brothers. St. Albert’s refusal to allow him to go resulted from his belief that Zamoyski’s economic activity was particularly beneficial from the social point of view, promoting not only civilizational but also spiritual progress. The cooperation of the two outstanding figures is without any doubt one of the most significant threads of Polish culture at the turn of the 20th century.
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Abstract

The collections of the Kórnik Library include a copy of a printed Mszał gnieźnieński [Gniezno Missal] of 1555, protected by a binding with characteristic architectural decoration. Detailed analysis shows that the binding was made between 1558 and 1566 in a workshop of an anonymous bookbinder from Poznań, thus confirming the presence of the Italian thread in the Poznań bookbinding ornamentation of the Renaissance period. At the same time, it is the latest known example of Polish renaissance architectural binding. It also provides evidence that although this characteristic composition formula appeared in the repertoire of the Poznań bookbinders about twenty years later than in Kraków, it lasted longer. Worthy of attention is also the volume’s provenance related to Stanisław Warszewicki – his being “the most influential figure of the [Jesuit] Order after Skarga” in Poland. He is commemorated by a supralibros with Kuszaba coat-of-arms and the sigles “S V C P” pressed into the centre of the bottom part of the binding.
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Abstract

The article presents a manner of the collection of sources for the history of towns whose records have been lost. However, Krajenka, a former town of nobility, has archival materials that were introduced to the property records mainly kept in the Kórnik Library and the State Archives in Poznan. The surviving lists of tax dues (hearth tax, poll tax) also facilitate the description of Krajenka’s past.
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Abstract

The article indexes and describes Ksawery Działyński’s (1756–1819) book collection. Ksawery developed his library on the basis of the collection he inherited from his predecessors, subsequently buying further items. The collection comprised a total of about 650 works. The turn of the 19th century was the time when the so-called “national book collections” were developed in the Polish lands with a view to the rescuing of Polish library resources. However, an analysis of Ksawery’s stock provides evidence that, being a politically engaged patriot, he collected his books in the spirit of the Enlightenment. Most of the books in the collection are French volumes (77%) and they mainly represent literature, history and history of art, and to a smaller extent science, medicine, and agriculture. The books were to help their owner conduct his political activity and manage his estate, and to provide entertainment. The collection was primarily developed for Ksawery’s own purposes.
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Abstract

Włodzimierz Dworzaczek’s published manuscript entitled “The Raszewski Family Bearing the Grzymała Coat of Arms” is a special work by an eminent genealogist written before WWII, when its author made his living doing research at the request of private individuals. Only his two works of this kind survived until our own times, and both are a part of the collections of the Kórnik Library. Dworzaczek wrote the Raszewski family’s genealogy for General Kazimierz Raszewski from Poznan in 1936, leading the direct line from the end of the 15th century to the general himself (end of the 19th century). Although the manuscript is incomplete (several last pages are missing), its publication is an important and much-needed supplementation to the genealogy of Polish noble families, due to the scant number of publications concerning the Raszewski family.
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Abstract

Sir Philip Sidney was one of the most important figures in Elizabethan England. An outstanding poet, courtier, diplomat and knight, he has been a subject of research for many generations of scholars. Some authors state that Sidney received a proposal to become a candidate for the Polish elective throne but refused because the Queen did not agree. This story can be traced back to a short biography of him written by Robert Naunton in ca. 1630, but the ultimate source was the elegy on the death of Sidney written by Robert Dowe. Addressed to an anonymous “Polish friend”, it proposed Sidney could have become a great king, had he not been killed in battle. It was clearly a poetic metaphor rather than a statement of fact. Nevertheless, a number of scholars still believe that Sidney was approached with the proposal by Olbracht Łaski when he visited London and was received with unprecedented splendour by Elizabeth I. Even though the reasons for Łaski’s visit are still unclear, there are many arguments against such a hypothesis. Nevertheless, Sidney was greatly interested in the Polish political system (as can be gleaned from his correspondence) and eventually visited Cracow in 1574, at the invitation of Marcin Leśniowolski. The last part of the paper is an attempt at identifying the house in which Sidney stayed and it is argued that it must have been the same house in which John Dee later intended to stay (probably on Sidney’s advice), but changed his mind. The house belonged to one Pernus, whose first name was not recorded by Dee. A detailed analysis of several members of that patrician family shows that it must have been Paweł Pernus, who studied at Heidelberg and later held high civic offices in Cracow. He owned several houses, but it seems that the most probable identification of the one in which Sidney stayed is the house at Floriańska 11, which was also occasionally visited by Edward Kelley during his and John Dee’s later stay in Cracow.
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Abstract

The discovery of a seventeenth-century duplicate copy of two letters (one written by Cardinal Zbigniew Oleśnicki to John of Capistrano on 15.04.1452, and the latter’s reply to the Cardinal and King Casimir Jagiellonian) on sheet 191 of the manuscript marked Chigi Q II 51 kept in the Vatican Apostolic Library, made it possible to determine the previously unknown provenance of the manuscript marked 1399 I from the Princes Czartoryski Library. As a result of an analysis of the content and the layout of the duplicate copy, it was established that the text from sheet 191 was copied directly from the manuscript kept in the Princes Czartoryski Library. The Chigi manuscript contains information on the source of the duplicate: a manuscript kept in St. Anne’s Franciscan friars monastery in Warsaw. Therefore, the monastery should be recognised as the place in which the Princes Czartoryski Library manuscript marked 1399 I was kept in the 17th century. It ended up there in the second half of the 15th century, soon after the monastery was founded, and was most probably kept there as long as until the beginning of the 19th century, when it was purchased by Tadeusz Czacki.
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Abstract

The article presents selected aspects of the life of Cecylia Działyńska against the background of her times, with a focus on the historical and cultural context as well as the specific local conditions, which had a considerable impact on her beliefs and attitude. The analysed source made it possible to reconstruct Cecylia’s convictions concerning her understanding of the nation, patriotism, attitude to the emancipation of women, social roles, faith and the Catholic church, which basically did not differ from the model convictions and behaviours in the public domain which were mandatory in the circles of women from the more enlightened spheres in the Prussian Partition. It was not so with the fulfilment of Cecylia’s ideals. Her deep religiousness, inclination to mysticism, unwillingness to marry, as well as an incurable, chronic disease, all left their mark on her life, preventing Cecylia from adopting the traditional role of a wife and a mother preserving the Polish customs and traditions, and maintaining faithfulness to the national and Catholic values in a family. Despite serious differences between the developing women’s movement in the Prussian Partition, and its equivalent in the Austrian and Russian Partitions, the views and the activity of women in the province of Posen, including Cecylia Działyńska (their rich charitable and educational activity as well as the significant development of female congregations in the second half of the 19th century), should be considered a more traditional, conservative model of the process of the emancipation of women on the Polish soil.
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Abstract

The article concerns the dating of a medallion from the collections of the Kórnik Library. The medallion is interesting both in view of its author (David d’Argers was one of the most eminent French sculptors), and the person portrayed by it (Klaudyna Potocka née Działyńska was among the most famous Polish women of the Romanticism). Castings of the medallion are kept in several Polish museums. In all of their catalogues, the castings are dated to 1831. However, both the biographic data and Potocka’s correspondence clearly indicate that they should be dated to 1834, which is the focus of what I have attempted to demonstrate.
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Abstract

In 1981, the Kórnik library acquired some exceptionally valuable manuscript materials of the Mycielski family living at Wydawy near Poniec, Greater Poland. They included more than 130 letters written by Helena Mycielska to her old friend Maria Harsdorf née Gniewosz. Helena (1857–1937), daughter of Józef and Maria née Turno, came from a family which stamped their virtue in difficult periods of Polish history. Her ancestors and relatives participated in national uprisings, were patriotic and social activists, scholars, and artists. Helena herself was interested in literature and art. She authored small works and reviews. She was also interested in the past of her family living in Wydawy and meticulously collected materials on their history. In about 1886, during a drawing course in Krakow, she met Maria Gniewosz, with whom she soon made friends, although Maria was 12 years younger than herself. The beautiful friendship of the two gentry women survived until Maria’s death in 1910. Helena Mycielska’s letters very interestingly document the life of the Polish landed gentry at the turn of the 20th century on the lands remaining under the rule of foreign powers for several dozen years. In the first part of the presented letters, the reader may become acquainted with Helena’s daily problems, dreams, and interests, as well as the issues which were important for her mother, her siblings, and her numerous relatives and acquaintances. She devoted a lot of space to house-related issues, in particular the duties which, as the eldest daughter, she was obliged to carry out, including the keeping of books of accounts, the keeping in order of all the bills, the managing of the home finances and the caring for the garden. She wrote about the numerous guests visiting her hospitable home at Wydawy. She gave many accounts of her participation in numerous family events such as christenings, weddings, and funerals. She mentioned her trips to Ignacy Paderewski’s concerts in Poznan and Wrocław. She devoted a lot of space in her correspondence to the books she read. She also confided to Maria on her own writing. She very carefully followed her friend’s developments as the author of reviews and small literary works, and gave her some good advice concerning the manner of writing. She often mentioned religious issues, in particular the retreats in which she participated, and she gave interesting accounts of the teaching of rural children, paying attention to the talents many of them displayed.
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Abstract

Maria Zamoyska (1860–1937) wrote her „Wspomnienia o zamku i tradycjach rodowych hr. Działyńskich i Zamoyskich” [Memories of the Castle and Traditions of the Count Działyński and Zamoyski Families] in about 1929, following the death of her mother, Jadwiga, née Działyńska (1831–1923), and her brother, Władysław Zamoyski (1853–1924), who co-founded the „Zakłady Kórnickie” Foundation. The memories include a description of the furnishings of several rooms in the Kórnik castle, which Maria Zamoyska showed to her guests, and the related traditions and legends. They were put down to paper out of the author’s need to mark the merits and the sacrifices suffered by members of the Zamoyski family for the benefit of the Polish nation. The memories include many popular pieces of information and anecdotes concerning the castle and its inhabitants, which are still told to the audience today by the castle guides. They were also one of the sources which helped in the arrangement of the museum after the refurbishment in 1959.
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Abstract

Anna Potocka, née Działyńska, was an eminent, recognised social activist, as well as the author of a journal marked by its high informative value, short books with advice for mothers bringing up children, and handbooks concerning herbalism. Her rich correspondence was partly destroyed and is currently scattered (the article specifies the places in which it is kept). The letter, which I purchased accidently, concerns some financial affairs of the Potocki marriage to do with the use of the forests in the area of Rymanów and shows the socio-economic relations rather typical for Galicia at that time.
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