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Abstrakt

Natural water reservoirs in Europe are very valuable floristic sites. Among them, springs are very important for the preservation of the biodiversity of flora in Poland. The present paper presents a community of water plants that is new to limnocren karst springs in Poland – Potame-tum pectinati Carstensen 1955 from Potametea class. In Europe this community in limnocren karst springs has not been found so far. The paper presents the floristic composition and the ecological requirements of this association.
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The analysed midforest peatlands are located in Natura 2000 sites: PLH060034 Uroczyska Puszczy Solskiej and PLH060031 Uroczyska Lasów Janowskich. The aim of the study was to evaluate plant communities as well as identify rare and legally protected plant, fungal, and animal species occurring in these areas. The analysed peatlands are characterised by a high diversi-ty of plant communities. They also provide habitats for legally protected and rare fauna and flora species. The peatlands exhibit high aesthetic and health-enhancing values.
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Cultural landscape indicators are quantitative and qualitative measures which related to the diverse features of the environment, including the material and non-material cultural heritage and the landscape physiognomy. They can be analysed in relation to architectural, spatial, social, visual, perceptual, and economic aspects. This article aims to identify such an extensive set of indicators in relation to seven villages located in the Łęczyńsko-Włodawskie Lakeland. The com-mon feature of the analysed areas is their strong association with the lake or river, which was emphasized by the use of specific indicators related to the characteristics of the waterside areas. As a result, for each locality 18 indicators were defined. The result showed that the highest quality of the cultural landscape possess Wola Uhruska, Lake Krasne and Bug river in Wola Uhruska, the lowest feature Grabniak and river Wieprz in Kijany. Besides, it was showed that villages generally are of higher quality of cultural landscape than water areas connected to them.
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In a study on the click beetles (Coleoptera: Elateridae) of selected plant communities of the Lasy Janowskie Reserve, 21 species of these beetles were recorded – 10 each in riparian forests and a sub-Atlantic mesic coniferous forest, 11 in a continental mixed coniferous forest, and 6 in wet grassland communities. The numbers of species in the communities was similar to numbers recorded in other, comparable areas of Poland, with the exception of the wet grasslands. Forest species that can also occur outside of forests – Athous subfuscus and Dalopius marginatus – were dominant. The biodiversity of the click beetle fauna in the communities was at an average level. An ecological and zoogeographical analysis was carried out as well.
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According to European Bison Pedigree Book, wisent population in Poland by the end of 2016 counted 1698 individuals, including 1455 animals in freedom. Therefore in Poland, live over 25% of presently living wisents, i.e. the largest population of this species in the world. Next to our state borders, there are free ranging populations in Belarus – Białowieska Forest about 480 individuals, in Ukraine – National Park Beskyd Skolyvski – 33, and Slovakia – National Park Poloniny – 27 wisents. Planned is the establishment of new transboundary populations at Landscape Park of Lower Oder River Valley, at Romincka, and Augustowska Forests. In many places where transboundary populations already exist or are planned, their potential joint home ranges are divided by anthro-pogenic (fencing – Ukraine, Belarus) or natural barriers (Oder River – Germany). The basic prob-lem for creating such populations will be either elimination of such barriers or introduction of passages allowing for animals' movements. Benefits provided by transboundary populations are: larger area of available habitats, a possi-bility for the maintenance of larger populations, and a chance for mitigation of isolation among particular herds. However possible problems include: more difficult population management due to differences in formal status of the species in particular countries, complicated budgeting of costs connected with maintenance of such herds and compensation of damages, and a possibility for a transmission of infectious diseases, not occurring at territory of one of neighbouring countries. Therefore, creation of transboundary populations of wisents is desirable regarding the possibility of extension of their home ranges and increase of effective numbers. Effectiveness of such initiatives will however depend upon a possibility for stable international agreements and routine coopera-tion. Very important is an establishment of an uniform formal status of this species in Europe or at last in EU member countries.
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The paper presents the results of partially categorized interviews conducted among the inhabitants of the nine lakeside villages located in the Łęczyńsko-Włodawskie lakeland. The aim of the study was to show how the inhabitants of rural areas featuring high natural values perceive the environment of their own village and what are their landscape preferences. The article presents the landscape elements which, according to the respondents, are the most and the least attractive in terms of aesthetics values as well as are considered to be characteristic or distinctive for a given village. Besides, a set of characteristics features and factors determining the landscape values of the analysed areas were presented. The results showed that the inhabitants attach little importance to the aesthetics values of their dwelling-place. It was also shown that lakes are considered, by the majority of the respondents, as landscape elements of the minor significance. The most important feature deciding on the villages aesthetic qualities occurred to be the law and order referring to the spatial, technical and visual aspects of buildings and sites resulted from the fact that an owner is taking care of a given place. Recently renovated or new sites and objects obtained the highest rate.
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Water reservoirs are very valuable floristic sites in Poland. Among them, the most im-portant for preservation of biodiversity of flora are fishponds. The long-term process of human pressure on habitats of this type caused disturbance of their biological balance. Changes in the water regime, industrial development and chemisation of agriculture, especially in the period of last two centuries, led to systematic disappearance of localities of many plant species and plant communities. Gnaphalio uliginosi-Eleocharitetum acicularis Passarge 1999, of Isoëto-Nanojuncetea class Br.-Bl. et Tx. 1943, was firstly described in Germany. This association grows on sandy or sandy-gravely banks of rivers and in old river beds. In Poland, Gnaphalio uliginosi-Eleocharitetum acicularis has not been found so far. The patches of this type have been described many times, but otherwise classified acording to syntakxonomical system. During current vegetation research the association Gnaphalio uliginosi-Eleocharitetum acicularis was found in seven fish-breeding ponds in south-western Poland. Fieldworks were conducted in 2000–2016.
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The study included mesotrophic Lake Piaseczno, located in the Łęczna-Włodawa Lake District. The aim of the study was to evaluate changes of water vegetation of a mesotrophic lake subjected to strong recreational pressure. Specifically we sought to better understand which natu-ral landscapes and anthropogenic developments stimulate or impede macrophyte development and spread. The study was conducted in July in 1997, 2007 and 2017 in three transects: the peat-bog (northern part of the lake), the recreational area (southeast part) and the agricultural area (east). The phytolittoral zone was analyzed from the shoreline to the maximum range of macrophytes occurrence. The study included all groups of macrophytes. Macrophytes in the mesotrophic Lake Piaseczno are still subjected to successive changes. Clearly increased diversity among emergent macrophytes, while a group of submerged macrophytes decreased. The largest changes among analyzed groups of macrophytes occurred in recreational and agricultural transects. Macrophytes have increased the range of occurrence, which may be due to hydrological changes associated with raising the overall water level, thus with increasing the area of the littoral. Impoverishment of diversity among elodeids shows the processes associated with the increase in Lake trophy.
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Słowa kluczowe game management bag hunting

Abstrakt

The main issues in hunting management in Belarus are environmental protection, social-cultural, and economic problems. The total area of hunting grounds in the area is approx. 16.6 million hectares, including approx. 7.4 million hectares of forestlands, 8.2 million hectares of farmlands, and approx. 1 million hectares of wetlands. The territory of Belarus is characterized by lowland terrain features and a large number and area of stagnant and flowing waters. Protected areas (parks, reserves) account for 8.7% of the total area of the country. The hunting management is implemented in 250 legal entities. The main user of hunting grounds is the Belarusian Associa-tion of Hunters and Fishermen managing an area of ca. 10 million hectares. Hunting management is implemented based on national legislation of 2005. In 2015, the population of the moose was 32 thousand, deer – 15.2 thousand, roe deer – 74.6 thousand, beaver –58.3 thousand, capercaillie – 8.5 thousand, black grouse – 37.3 thousand. Over the last 10 years, the population of moose has doubled and the population of deer and roe deer has increased 2.5-fold and 1.5-fold, respectively. In relation to the habitat potential and breeding recommendations, the current populations of game species (moose, deer, and roe der) do not exceed 70% of the expected number. There are wild boars, but their numbers have been substantially reduced from 80 thousand to 2–3 thousand due to the epizootic threat (ASF). The hunting size is limited with reference to the number of individual species and the abundance dynamics. The level of exploitation of Cervidae is 10–13% of the total abundance, beavers – ca. 15%, and capercaillie and black grouse – 8–10%. Wolves are a hunting species and their population size over the last 10 years increased from 1000 to 1600 individuals, and the culling size increased from 700 to 1400.
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Scheuchzeria palustris is a species regarded as an arctic-boreal relic and critically en-dangered. The study was conducted on one of the recent stands in the Łódź region, in the Czarny Ług Reserve, located near Wolbórz. The primary aim of the study was to know the amount of this species and the associated species. Quantitative, morphological and floristic features were ana-lysed. In the study area occurred about 150 specimens per 1 m2. Among the associated species were found species representing classes: Scheuchzerio-Caricetea Nigrae and Oxycocco-Sphagnetea. Eriopho-prum angustifolium was dominant among the first class species (60% coverage), while Andromeda polifolia and Oxycoccus palustris from the second class. From here it can be assumed that the succession will be in the direction of Scheuchzerio-Caricetea Nigrae. However, high water levels may inhibit this process. Specific biotic and abiotic conditions allow for the survival of this spe-cies. This is visible, among other things, in the mosaic structure of the studied stand.
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The species diversity, density and similarity of Gastrotrich fauna of bottom sediments to epiphytic fauna in three farm ponds were investigated. In the studied habitats 31 species of Gas-trotricha belonging to the family of Chaetonotidae were found altogether. In bottom sediments of the ponds there were 29 and on plants 17 species of Gastrotricha. Three species (Heterolepido-derma gracile Rmane, 1927, Chaetonotus disjunctus Greuter, 1917 and Ch. oculifer Kisielewski, 1981) were found to be dominants in bottom sediments with the dominance over 10.0%. H. gracile and Ch. oculifer also occur on vegetation, but their dominance is significantly lower. In turn three species (H. macrops Kisielewski, 1981, H. ocellatum (Mečnikow, 1865) and Lepidodermella squamata (Dujardin, 1841) proved to be dominant on water vegetation, with the dominance over 10.0% in all studied ponds. The value of species diversity index H’ including the number of spe-cies and uniformity of their dominance is from 2.76 to 2.93 for bottom sediments and from 2.60 to 2.72 for plants. The total density of gastrotrich fauna in bottom sediments fluctuated from 350.0 to 920.0 103 indiv. m-2 and on elodeids from 520 to 1110 103 indiv. m-2. The density of gastrotrich fauna of elodeids was higher than in bottom sediments in all the studied ponds. In each of the ponds examined, the differences are statistically significant. The similarity between bottom sediment fauna and epiphytic fauna in each of the studied ponds, cal-culated according to the homogeneity index, was very low and ranged from 44% to 48%.
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Structure of fish communities of five small water reservoirs located near the Chodelka river was investigated during the years 2002, 2008 and 2016. In the analyzed water bodies seven fish were noted, representing four families: Cyprinidae (4 species) and Esocidae, Cobitidae, Peri-cidae and Ictaluridae (1 species each). In the structure of collected fish one protected species (M. fossilis) and one alien species (C. auratus gibelio) were presented. Domination structure of ichthyofauna showed considerable differences. Among the dominant species were: R. rutilus (all five reservoir) and C. auratus. The percentage of each fish species in the biomass was slightly different in relation to the structure of domination expressed by the number of identified individuals. Regardless of the reservoir, larger share held: E. lucius, R. rutilus and C. auratus.
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The problem of hazardous medical waste resulting from the provision of healthcare services by healthcare institutions is becoming increasingly relevant in the context of the need to ensure environmental protection and safety to human life and health. This requires efficient management of waste in order to minimise its level of hazard. The most common problems in this respect are found at the stage of the temporary storage of hazardous medical waste, as confirmed by irregulari-ties reported over the last six years at healthcare institutions in the 388 (16.4%) from the Great Poland Province voivodship, which is the third voivodship in terms of hazardous medical waste generation in Poland. Violations of sanitary and building regulations in the storage of hazardous medical waste could lead to widespread infection and infectious diseases in humans and to the environment. This should be prevented through the introduction of continuing education for the personnel having direct contact with waste and for the management staff of healthcare institutions with a view to fostering awareness and responsibility regarding sanitary security and environmen-tal protection.
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The paper discusses the water resources of the Krężniczanka River catchment. The catchment with an area of 224.9 km2 is located south-west of Lublin. The characteristics of the groundwaters and runoff were determined based on hydrological and hydrogeological materials of the Department of Hydrology of the Maria Curie-Skłodowska University (UMCS). Mean runoff in the period from 2010 to 2016 amounted to 125.7 mm, precipitation 629.4 mm, and evapotranspi-ration 503.7 mm. A strong relationship was determined between the rhythm of runoff and ground-water level fluctuations. The contribution of groundwater supply in total runoff equalled 81.5%.
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The relationships between epiphytic fauna and habitat conditions were studied in three oxbow lakes of Wieprz River (eastern Poland). Fauna associated with macrophytes showed low species richness (range 8–11 taxa dependently on site and season) usually observed in lakes of high water trophy. Densities of fauna were high (mean 71–5250 ind. 100 g DW-1), typical for shallow lakes with well developed submerged vegetation. In the domination structure prevailed Gastropoda (relative abundance 23–100%) and Chironomidae (relative abundance 8–87%). Re-dundancy analysis showed the significance of four environmental variables – temperature, dis-solved oxygen, Ptot and P-PO4 as determinants of abundance of epiphytic fauna.
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Dratów, Krzczeń and Tomaszne lakes are linked by means of Wieprz-Krzna Canal. On the other hand, Bikcze, Mytycze and Plotycze lakes are not included in the water system of Wieprz-Krzna Canal. However, all these lakes are regarded as biologically valuable water reser-voirs forming Łęczyńsko-Włodawskie Lakeland. They are shallow eutrophic lakes with varied water surface, different catchment area and diversified structure of catchment management. The qualitative and quantitative composition of planktonic rotifers was studied in spring, summer and autumn of 2012 and 2013. The studies revealed the presence of 67 Rotifera species with their mean density ranging from 119 ind. dm-3 in Tomaszne lake to 1441 ind. dm-3 in Bikcze lake. Dominants included few very common species of Brachionus angularis, Keratella cochlearis, Keratella cochlearis tecta, Keratella quadrata, Polyartchra vulgaris. Dominance structure and species diversity suggest a slightly higher ecological status of Mytycze lake, as compared to the remaining eutrophic reservoirs. Faunistic differences observed among rotifer assemblages inhabiting individual lakes were significantly bigger than those registered in the successive study years within the area of individual lakes. This property referred to all the reservoirs, both the ones linked with the water system of the canal and the lakes not included in the canal system. Bigger faunistic differences occurred among rotifer assemblages inhabiting the lakes of Wieprz-Krzna Canal sys-tem, as compared with the assemblages found in the lakes not included in the system.
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The aim of the study was evaluation of ecological potential of reservoirs, once complexes of fish ponds, which are currently covered by international form of nature conservation. An effort to identify the source of reservoirs’ water supply in biogenic substances has also been undertaken. Studied dam reservoirs, included in Natura 2000 site: a Special Protection Area (SPA) called ‘Uroczysko Mosty--Zahajki’ (PLH060014). The ‘Uroczysko Mosty-Zahajki’ consists of two neighboring, not very deep reservoirs: Mosty (390 ha) and Zahajki (240 ha), located in the Hanna river’s catchment area, a tributary of the Bug and Zielawa rivers entering the Krzna river. Studied reservoirs represented moderate (reservoir Zahajki) and bad (Mosty reservoir) ecological potential. The buffer zones of Mosty and Zahajki reser-voirs were dominated by large forest complexes. The studied reservoirs are supplied with rivers and ditches contaminated with nutrients. Mosty and Zahajki reservoirs, in spite of moderate and poor ecologi-cal potential, increase the water resources of the area, have a positive impact on the circulation of water and increase the landscape and recreational values of region.
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The paper presents the characteristics of shallow groundwaters of the Polesie National Park – one of five national parks in Poland, where main subjects of protection are water-peatland ecosystems. Its functioning depends on the state of water resources. Data from field mapping at the turn of July and August 2013 used for the analysis show untypically high location of groundwaters in the summer period. Such a situation was caused by abundant atmospheric alimentation that occurred in spring and early summer of the analysed year.
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The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of water movement on both qualita-tive and quantitative occurrence of macrophytes in lakes. We studied four lakes differentiated in respect of water supply (two flow and two inflow).The investigation included: determination of the buffer zones of lakes, analysis of land use forms and layout of the buffer zone, floristic charac-teristic of lakes littoral, characteristic of phytolittoral types, analysis of physical and chemical parameters of lakes. The buffer zone of the flow lakes was dominated by farmland, but there was no land meadow. In the inflow lakes co-dominated fields and forests in the buffer zone. The in-flow lakes characterized by greater species diversity, density and biomass of emergent macro-phytes. In all investigated lakes, in the zone of water supply, analyzed features of macrophytes, and selected chemical parameters of water, reached the highest value.
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Changes in the land use structure, which are observed in recent years, generally indicate their negative impact on ecological quality considered in the landscape scale. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether such a trend also applies to protected areas, such as land-scape parks (LP). As research areas four parks located within the Roztocze and Solska Forest (Poland) were selected. Three factors were analyzed as an surrogate indicators of the ecological quality: the degree of anthropogenic transformation of land cover forms, landscape diversity and the degree of landscape fragmentation. The study included data for the years 2004 and 2012 and was based on the GIS and orthophotomaps analysis. The results showed a lack of general trends for the whole analyzed region. The impact of changes in the land use structure on the ecological values can be defined as positive for Krasnobród LP and South Roztocze LP. In the case of Szczebrzeszyn LP and Solska Forest LP the impact is difficult to determine due to the different results obtained on the basis of selected indicators. Therefore, in order to totally illustrate the analyzed dependence the landscape structure in other periods of time should be analyzed, as well as the correlations between the defined changes and a variety of natural and cultural considerations.
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The aim of the study was to specify the current status and direction of transformations of leaf beetle assemblages taking part in the rapid process of succession of vegetation towards the types of forest communities occurring in the Krzemionki Opatowskie reserve. At five sampling sites (in five plant associations) 30 species of Chrysomelidae were recorded. Five typical forest species (Chrysomela populi, Pyrrhalta viburni, Calomicrus pinicola, Altica brevicollis and Cryp-tocephalus labiatus) accounted for 16.67% of the number of species and 12.85% of the number of individuals caught in the reserve. The forest association richest in species (18) was Querco ro-boris-Pinetum (Que_Pin). This was followed by Tilio-Carpinetum association (Til_Car, 15 spp.), and then a mosaic of Tilio-Carpinetum and Querco roboris-Pinetum (Til_Car/Que_Pin), and Peucedano-Pinetum (Peu_Pin) (11 spp. each). The fewest number of species (10) were noted in Potentillo albae-Quercetum (Pot_Que). The most similar were the fauna of Potentillo albae--Quercetum (Pot_Que) and Querco roboris-Pinetum (Que_Pin) (55.08% similarity). The most distinct was the fauna of Peucedano-Pinetum (Peu_Pin). We can conclude that the structure of the leaf beetle assemblages in the forest associations studied in the reserve is at present an adaptive mixture of faunas characteristic of all the intermediate successional stages of vegetation, changing in this area in a relatively short time. The considerable diversity of fauna is the result of an ‘eco-tone in time’, i.e. the continuous presence of open-land species, which until recently had dominated here, accompanied by forest species characteristic of the current habitat types.
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The paper aimed to get the analysis of spatial horizontal distribution of summer phyto-plankton in a small and shallow lake (Głębokie, Western Polesie, CE Poland) in relation to wind conditions occurring during the research period. The study was conducted in 2011 from 5th of July to 5th of September with eight sampling dates between. Water was sampled in the littoral zone from the depth of 0.5 m in four sites situated in different and opposite to one another lake shores. We analyzed the phytoplankton abundance by the way of chlorophyll a determination as well as the community taxonomic structure. Our research revealed that: a) the direction of the wind, which occurred during sampling might have an important role in the horizontal distribution of planktonic algal biomass within the lake; b) the geomorphology of lake surroundings probably mitigated the influence of wind on phytoplankton distribution; c) even weak or mild wind may influence phytoplankton horizontal differentiation.
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The paper presents an original method for assessing the landscape physiognomy of the rural public spaces. It takes into account both the purely aesthetic qualities as well as those that affect the functionality, attractiveness and significance of a given space. The following features are evaluated: coziness, availability, the nature of the edges, presence of greenery, presence of water ecosystems, presence of landscape dominants and landmarks, opening and view connec-tions, presence of negative elements, local identity and tradition, bendiness, and the nature of light. The method has been applied to evaluate the selected rural public spaces of the Polesie region realized in the years 2008–2015. The study revealed that 40% of the analyzed places were rated positively, 33% neutrally and 27% negatively. The article examines the types of spaces which obtained the highest and the lowest raring position, as well as features that affect this as-sessment. Besides, the analysis of main advantages and disadvantages of newly created public spaces show direction of their improvement.
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