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Abstrakt

Many Haitian writers since the earthquake that destroyed Port-au-Prince in January 2010 have developed in their works of fiction the theme of writing the disaster, expressing it in various forms. The aim of this paper is to analyze the strategies adopted to write about the psychological and social effects of the cataclysmic event in two post-earthquake novels, Marvin Victor’s Corps mêlés (2011) and Makenzy Orcel’s Les Immortelles (2010). In questioning the relationship between literature and the present-time, the two Haitian writers chose different styles and forms to transpose into fiction the disruptions caused by the earthquake. We will focus our attention on two narrative strategies in particular: the interior monologue chosen by Victor and the hybrid narration preferred by Orcel.
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Fascinated with Mexico continually since childhood, J.M.G. Le Clézio publishes the, inspired by the countr y, novel Ourania in 2006. The author’s concern for the survival of the Mexican world has not escaped his critics. It is worth noting, however, that the writer’s emphasis on the role of the oral tradition in the Amerindian culture and their ecological attitudes are evident. The culture of the spoken language (along with the belief in the magic of words) is contrasted with the western culture of the written language (stressing the emptiness of words). The analysis of this issue and the study of the formal procedures by which Le Clézio moves from the spoken to the written language may give us a sense of the suggestive voice of the Mexican peoples along with their ecological attitudes. It seems that J.M.G. Le Clézio, who protects tribal societies who know how to use the world in a moderate way, promotes, among others, their respect for the natural environment.
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In his fifth novel La Nuit des morts-vivants, François Blais, a Quebec writer of the young generation, created yet another pair of kindred spirits after Iphigénie en Haute-Ville. The characters are young people addicted to all kinds of fiction, from high literature to video games, and they make reflections on the borders between fiction and reality that are worthy of a literary critic or a very conscious reader. Devoting every moment that they have at their disposal to reading books, watching films, and playing video games, Pavel and Moly are outstanding due to their erudition, even if they are simultaneously typical representatives of the generation with low-paid jobs or living on social benefits and realizing themselves only in the substitute world of fiction.
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Contemporary biographical fictions in France: between narrative and visual – This paper discusses an evolution of point of view on biographical fictions from 90’ to the present, due to the important increase of literary practices exploring images and their role in the constitution of the biographical discourse. The relation between fiction and reality presented from the point of view of Paul Ricoeur’s ‘narrative identity’ in first approaches of biographical fictions is now substituted by the reflection about the relation between narrative and visual which discloses, particularly in the case of biographical portraits of writers, the commemorative aspects of a literary text.
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Micro-(h)istorical narratives by Claude Duneton and Jean Echenoz – The purpose of this article is a comparative study of two recent French novels, Le Monument. Roman vrai by Claude Duneton (2004) and 1914 by Jean Echenoz (2012), which, in spite of formal and ideological differences, approach the theme of the Great War in a way similar to micro-historical frameworks. Like historians representing this field of historiography, both writers depict the four years of the First World War by focusing on a small community and a geographical space limited to a small location on the home-front. Referring to the distinction between roman de l’historien (the historian’s novel) and roman du témoin (the witness’s novel) proposed by Emmanuel Bouju, the author of the article analyses the strategies used by the novelists to create an indirect witness’s point-of-view, juxtaposed with the perspective of the contemporary recipient of the events that happened a hundred years ago.
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Tanguy Viel’s novels are peculiar variations on well-known novelistic genres: they creatively re-work familiar plot configurations, narrative strategies and thematic concerns. It would appear that this subversive re-activation of the genre can be related to this contemporary literary aesthetics which foregrounds blurring of generic boundaries and mixing of traditional forms. In this context the ambiguous generic status of Viel’s fiction deserves close scrutiny, which is precisely the aim of the present paper: it analyses his last novel Paris-Brest (2009) within the framework of selected contemporary theories of genre.
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In father’s footsteps or a problematic filiation. Dominique Jamet’s case – There is a phenomenon to be observed in contemporary French literature, namely the renewal of the novel through writing about self and the day-to-day reality in the context of family history. Writers reach into the past, often traumatic and painful, in order to rebuild their own broken identity, scarred by the memory of their parents’ troubled past. This is the case with Dominique Jamet. He returns to history with a capital H (the interwar period, World War Two, the Vichy regime and the subsequent issues of accounting for collaboration), so as to draw the figure of his father, Claude, an “intellectual” turncoat. The questionable filiation is the point of departure for writing two autobiographical texts. Also, it had undoubtedly been an inspiration for Un traître, a novel published in 2008, which is a fictitious reconstruction of the biography of Jacques Vasseur, an infamous French collaborator.
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Palynological and archaeobotanical analyses were conducted on excavated sediments from Tse Dura, a Later Stone Age rock shelter in north-central Nigeria with the aim of reconstructing the environment conditions at the site within the last millennium. From 933 ± 29 BP to 802 ± 29 BP, the environment alternated between Guinea savanna with dry conditions, and secondary and riverine forests with humid conditions. During these periods of environmental fluctuations, the LSA populations engaged in the management of economic plants the most significant of which included Dioscorea spp. Pennisetum glaucum and Elaeis guineensis, and exploited wild plants such as Pavetta crassipes, Sarcocephalus latifolius and Lophira cf. lanceolata for dietary and ethnomedicinal purposes. Around 310 ± 30 BP cal, the environment became very wet after which it was succeeded by a drier period. It was during this period that Sorghum bicolor became prominent, and the environment attained its current status dominated by Guinea savanna elements and secondary forests.
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The site at Orłowo Cliff was used to analyse the stratigraphic position and palaeogeographic interpretations of the properties and depositional conditions of two basal tills from the Late Pleistocene. A multi-proxy approach involved lithofacies, petrographic analysis of the fine gravel fraction, analyses of indicator erratics and till fabric. TL dating of intra-moraine deposits was used to determine depositional time frames of tills. The sediment profile at Orłowo Cliff shows a distinct reduction in number of Pleistocene units. Obtained dating results suggest the presence of Middle and Late Pleistocene fluvial units. The main issue discussed is the stratigraphic position of the older till (Unit O-4). It can be assumed that this till was deposited probably during the Middle Weichselian (MIS4). At Orłowo Horn the till of Unit O-4 reveals incorporation of the erratic material derived from an older till in the surrounded area (according to petrographic composition – probably from MIS 8). The younger till (Unit O-6) was deposited in the Late Weichselian (MIS 2). Moreover, the till of Unit O-6 is characterised by a significant shift towards the south-west in terms of the erratic origin in Unit O-4.
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Although much has been written about a cosmic impact event in the Western Alps of the Mt. Viso area, the event closely tied with the Younger Dryas Boundary (YDB) of 12.8 ka and onset of the Younger Dryas (YD), the affected land surface is considered to contain a similar black mat suite of sediment found on three continents. While work elsewhere has focused on recovered sediment from lake and ice cores, buried lacustrine/alluvial records, and surface glacial and paraglacial records, no one has traced a mountain morphosequence of deposits with the objective of investigating initial weathering/ soil morphogenesis that occurred in ice recessional deposits up to the YDB when the surface was subjected to intense heat, presumably, as hypothesized by Mahaney et al. (2016a) from a cosmic airburst. With the land surface rapidly free of ice following glacial retreat during the Břlling-Allerřd interstadial, weathering processes ~13.5 to 12.8 ka led to weathering and soil morphogenesis in a slow progression as the land surface became free of ice. To determine the exposed land character in the mid- to late-Allerřd, it is possible to utilize an inverted stratigraphic soil morphogenesis working backward in time, from known post-Little Ice Age (LIA) (i.e. time-zero) through LIA (~0.45 to ~0.10 ka), to at least the middle Neoglacial (~2 ka), to answer several questions. What were the likely soil profile states in existence at the end of the Allerřd just prior to the cosmic impact/airburst (YDB)? Assuming these immature weathered regolith sections of the Late Allerřd approximated the <1 ka old profiles seen today, and assuming the land surface was subjected to a hypothesized instant temperature burst from ambient to ~2200oC at ~12.8 ka, what would be the expected effect on the resident sediment? To test the mid-LG (YDB) to YD relationship we analyzed the paleosols in both suites of deposits – mid-LG to YD – to test that the airburst grains are restricted to Late Allerřd paleosols and using relative-age-determination criteria, that the overlapping YD to mid-LG moraines are closely related in time. These are some of the questions about the black mat that we seek to answer with reference to sites in the upper Guil and Po rivers of the Mt. Viso area.
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Archaeology of north-eastern Poland has been poorly recognized owing to vast forest areas and numerous lakes. This particularly refers to the Warmian–Masurian Voivodship, where forest covers over 30% of its area. Prospection of forested areas has become possible in Poland just over 10 years ago with the Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) and Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR). These techniques allow obtaining 3-D documentation of recognized and also unknown archaeological sites in the forested areas. Thanks to ALS/LiDAR prospection a significant number of archaeological structures have been identified also in the Warmia and Masuria regions. Among them oval-shaped hillforts, surrounded by perfectly spaced concentric moats and ramparts, located mainly on islands and in wetland areas, have raised particular attention. Based on field prospection and results of preliminary excavations, these objects have been considered as Iron Age hillforts. One of the best preserved objects of this type is on the Radomno Lake island, located several kilometres to the south of Iława town. Integrated geoarchaeological prospection of this hillfort emphasized benefits of using LiDAR in combination with results of geophysical prospection and shallow drillings. Applied methodology enabled to document the hillfort shape, and to study its geological structure and stratigraphy. The results clearly indicate that integration of LiDAR data with geophysical prospecting is indispensable in future archaeological surveys. It is a perfect tool for remote sensing of archaeological objects in forest areas, so far not available for traditional archaeology.
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Balmont’s only contribution to Russian Symbolist Drama is discussed in the forthcoming article as an attempt of quitting narcissistic “lyrical solitude”, which parallels Blok’s situation upon staging the play Balaganchik. Motifs of the mythologeme of Narcissus scattered all over Balmont’s poetry and prose, given narcissistic features of his individual character seem to reinforce that a subtle decoding of the myth as a sujet of semiosis, constitutes one of the chief constructive principles of the play. By means of contrasting allusions to the Blue Flower of Novalis Balmont accentuates metamorphosis via dematerialisation and transmutation coded in the myth. The pattern of colour and fl oral imagery juxtaposing the complementary yellow and blue is meant to reveal the harmony of universal correspondences shown through the omnipresent principle of the Eternal Feminine.
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The book The Secondhand Time completes the artistic-documentary cycle of works The Voices of Utopia by S. Aleksievich, a Russian-speaking Belarusian author. Like her other books, it actualizes, in her own words, “the genre of human voices, confessions, testimonies and documents of a human soul”. Unlike Western documentary writers whose works oppose the artistic world by undressing and desacralizing it, S. Aleksievich, by following the traditions of the Russian literature, strives to preserve the sacred in her material, oftentimes introducing the artistic and esthetic elements. The article analyzes the tools that the author uses in her book, such as selecning facts and documents, alternating “voices”, editing them, including other sources in the text, moving from location to locatoin, explicit and implicit depiction of conscience, psychology of interlocutors, accentuating basic elements in monologues and remarks, allusions, reminiscences, etc. The conclusion evaluates artistic value of this work.
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