The role of two submerged macrophyte species (Ceratophyllum demersum and Potamogeton pectinatus) as biological factor affecting concentrations of P and chlorophyll a concentrations was tested under laboratory conditions. In general, after four weeks exposition, the significant reduction of TP, P-PO4 and chlorophyll a was observed in all experimental variants (aquaria with P. pectinatus, C. demersum and P. pecinatus + C. demersum), but the highest decrease of phosphorous compounds (TP, P-PO4) was noted in aquarium with C. demersum, whereas the highest decline of chlorophyll a concentration (biomass of phytoplankton) was observed in aquarium with C. demersum + P. pectinatus. Together with the reduction of chemical parameters the biomass of macrophytes as well mean length of plant shoots significantly increases. The highest growth of shoots and biomass showed C. demersum.
Cyanobacterial and algal blooms lead to the deterioration of freshwater ecosystems but also generate technical problems in water management in the industry. Power plants often use freshwater lakes and reservoirs as a source of cooling water and in the case of cogeneration stations (combined heat and power) also as a source of agents for heating energy distribution. A preliminary research in one of the heat and power stations in eastern Poland which uses water from suffering with algal blooms reservoir was carried out in April 2011. The study was focused on the changes in the phytoplankton quantitative and qualitative structure as well as in basic physico- -chemical parameters along the water treatment line, which consists of several stages serving as sampling points (from the pump station to the purified water tank). The initial phytoplankton biomass in the reservoir was high (fresh biomass: 65.8 mg dm-3, chlorophyll a: 146.7 μg dm-3) with diatoms prevailing (98% of the total biomass) from which the most numerous were: Cyclotella comta and Aulacoseira granulata. After several stages of the purification process (sedimentation, biocide addition, flocculation, gravel filtering, ion exchange) the water still consisted a considerable amount of algae (fresh biomass: 2.48 mg dm-3, chlorophyll a: 6.0 μg dm-3). However, the final biomass in purified water tank (after reversed osmosis process) was very low (fresh biomass: 0.03 mg dm-3, chlorophyll a: 0.1 μg dm-3). Results had shown that high algal biomass in the water used in power generation plant is difficult to remove and consequently requires considerable technical (thus also economical) efforts to adjust the water for the industrial use.
The brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus) is an invasive species of fish fauna in Poland. This species is widespread throughout the country but its abundance and characteristics of populations present in water reservoirs are relatively little known. Aim of this study was to determine the abundance and characteristic of the population of brown bullhead in the Domaszne Lake. The control fish catches were carried out three times in 2012 and 2013 years (spring, summer, autumn). Brown bullhead had a small share in the structure of fish abundance (2.7%) and biomass (7.5%), but his presence was reported in results of all control fishing. Relative abundance of brown bullhead averaged about 7.8 CPUE and biomass about 505.5 WPUE. The fishes the greatest total length and weight had in the spring (Tl = 18.5 cm, W = 77.7 g) but the highest value of the coefficient of condition (K = 2.08) in summer were noted. Brown bullhead with a total length from 16 to 18 cm accounted for as much as 59% of the population and distribution of size structure confirm a fact that has a stable population.
The seasonal development of testate amoebae and ciliates was studied in two peatbogs with different pH values. The values of numbers of testate amoebae were seasonally changeable. The highest numbers of testate amoebae were found in spring and summer with the dominance of Areclla vulgaris, Nebela barbata and Cucurbitella sp. The density during the autumn was the lowest. The highest numbers of ciliate communities were noted in spring and autumn during the mass development of small Scuticociliatida and Colpodea. The density throughout the summer was the lowest. Generally, in the present studies the abundance of testate amoebae was correlated with the abundance of bacteria and heterotrophic flagellates. The density of bacterivorous Colpodea, Scuticociliatida and Cyrtophorida correlated positively with the density and biomass of bacteria. In low pH peatbog relations between microbial loop components were stronger.
The aim of research carried out was to describe the zonality and structure of zoopleuston in shallow eutrophic reservoirs. Zoopleuston structure discovered in examined reservoirs was quite different than in depression reservoirs and lakes on Łęczna-Włodawa Lakeland. It was related to morphometry of reservoirs and plant richness of shallow litoral zone. Higher species richness in the water/land contact zone was found which confirms previous studies, however, sometimes zoopleuston abundance showed the opposite pattern. Most differences occurred in dominants composition as in water/land contact zone and on the depth of 0.5 m dominated mainly by small species of Heteroptera: Micronecta minutissima and Cymatia coleoptrata.
The article presents an ecological characterization of thrips caught in Moericke traps in the Botanical Garden in Lublin. The objective of the research was to study the species composition and abundance of thrips in a man-made environment, where alongside native plants there are also trees and bushes brought in from other parts of the world. A total of 396 adult Thysanoptera individuals belonging to 39 species were caught. This is 17.2% of the thrip fauna in Poland. Among the individuals collected there were 10 dendrophilous species and 3 mycophagous species associated with tree bark and living in rotting wood. This is 25% of the Thysanoptera occurring in Poland with these food preferences. The trap method chosen is effective at catching thrips appearing in the spring and early summer, i.e. Taeniothrips inconsequens, Thrips minutissimus, Oxythrips ajugae and O. bicolor, as well as deeply hidden species that are difficult to capture using other methods. Using the Moericke trap method we collected four species rarely recorded in Poland.
In two fish ponds in Lasy Janowskie Landscape Park 48 water mite species were caught. In the pond Momoty Duże, situated in the Lasy Janowskie reserve, more species (38), higher species diversity (3.88), and a larger share of lake fauna (33.2%) were observed than in Momoty Małe (33, 3.67 and 22.6% respectively). In the combined collected material small water body species were dominant (70.6%). Similarity between the Hydrachnidia assemblages of the two ponds was 50.1%. The large number of species and individuals caught and the high values for the species diversity index confirm the significant role of fish ponds as a habitat for water mites. A characteristic trait of the ponds was the very small percentage of vernal species and of tyrphobiontic and tyrphophilic species. Although more species and a larger share of lake fauna were found in the pond situated in the reserve (Momoty Duże) than in the pond outside the reserve (Momoty Małe), the differences in the structure of the fauna were slight. The lack of pronounced differences between the two ponds was due to their similar habitat characteristics and similar use.
The quantity of deposited metals was determined in the tissues of Cepaea nemoralis, Lumbricus terrestris and Geotrupes stercorarius, as well as in plant and soil samples from two locations characterized by different levels of human impact. The bioaccumulation factor (BAF) of metals in the bodies of these invertebrate taxa occupying the same habitats was compared, in relation to their content in Taraxacum officinale leaves and in the soil. Analysis of the content of metals in the bodies of selected species belonging to different taxonomic groups demonstrates the usefulness of these invertebrates in biomonitoring.
Species composition and density of Gastrotricha in bottom sediments were studied, on an annual basis, in the littoral of the mesotrophic Lake Piaseczno (Łęczyńsko-Włodawskie Lakeland). The number of species from spring to autumn remained on the same level (from 24 in spring to 22 in autumn), but in winter in littoral of the lake there were recorded only 8 species. Species diversity expressed by the Shannon index, in spring, summer and autumn was high and amounted 2.86; 2.69 and 2.77 respectively. In winter the value of the index was significantly lower and amounted 1.80. In individual seasons the mean density of Gastrotricha valued from 50 103 indiv. m-2 during winter to 1238 103 indiv. m-2 in spring. The density of Gastrotricha in spring was more than 24 times higher than that winter. There were no significant differences in species diversity Gastrotricha from spring to autumn, although the peak abundance was recorded in the spring. It is necessary to add, that the density of Gastrotricha during the spring peak was one order of magnitude higher from that in summer and autumn. The similarity of the fauna found in winter to the fauna occurring in other seasons, is significantly low, ranging from 24 to 27%. Seasonal changes in amount and diversity of the gastrotrich fauna are probably the result of temperature changes and food availability.
This phytoplankton study was conducted from May to September 2002, 2003 and 2005 during fountain-based water aeration in the pelagial of Jeziorak Mały urban lake in Poland. Differences in the abundance and biomass of phytoplankton groups (cyanobacteria, diatoms, chlorophytes, dinoflagellates, chrysophytes and cryptomonads) related to physico-chemical water parameters were analyzed at the fountain and in the lake centre. Fountain water-mixing changed phytoplankton growth likely by decreasing water temperature, oxygenation and nutrient concentrations. These induced a disturbance in the cyanobacteria and stimulated growth of phytoplankton groups in the water column. High phytoplankton abundance at 1 m depth at the fountain could relate with phytoplankton sinking in the water column. This additional water mixing also intensified sedimented organic matter decomposition, thus enhancing nutrient uptake by phytoplankton. These results are important for future shallow urban lake management.
Despite great technological progress scientists still are not capable of ascertaining how many species are there on Earth. Systematic studies are not only time-consuming, but sometimes also significantly impeded by constraints of available equipment. One of the methods for morphology evaluation, which is gradually more often used for taxonomical research is microcomputed tomography. It’s great spatial resolution and ability to gather volumetric data during single acquisition without sectioning specimen are properties especially useful in evaluation of small invertebrates. Nondestructive nature of micro-CT gives possibility to combine it with other imaging techniques even for single specimen. Moreover, in case of rare organisms studies it allows to collect full structural data without fracturing their bodies. Application of proper staining, exposure parameters or specific sample preparation significantly improves quality of performed studies. The following article presents summary of current trends and possibilities of microtomography in morphology studies of small invertebrates.
The aim of presented work was to evaluate the current tourist-leisure management and on this basis to designate the concept of management the Natura 2000 „Puszcza Notecka” area at Drawsko commune area. The natural-landscape valorisation revealed a very high level of environmental values. However, this potential is currently not fully utilized. For enrichment of current tourist infrastructure and full using potential of analyzed area the followed activities were here proposed: designation of new tourist routes, location a resort and small architecture objects.
The aim of study was to evaluate the richness and distribution of the aquatic macrophytes in ponds. . Studies were carried out in July 2013 and July 2014 on the six largest and oldest ponds (functioning since the First World War) in the Łęczna-Włodawa Lake District – Sosnowica ponds. Studies have shown that despite the fishing use of ponds, they can provide valuable habitat for aquatic plants biodiversity. Distribution of plants in the ponds was typical mosaic. Phytolittoral often developed from one bank to another. Macrophyte beds occupied a significantly large percentage of the studied pond areas. Emergent macrophytes were dominant group of macrophytes in investigated ponds.
One of the most interesting and relatively little-known water acosystems of ”Lasy Janowskie” Natural Landscape Park is its old ponds which have been in most cases excluded from intensive fisheries for many decades. Four of them were studied in 1996, 2005 and 2013, regarding their planktonic rotifer assemblages. The total of 60 rotifer taxa were observed in the plankton. The number of their species in individual reservoirs ranged from 7 to 21, while their density amounted to 33–775 ind. dm-3. As many as 21 of the species observed in individual water bodies and study periods belonged to dominants. While watching the changes occurring in the plankton during the period of 17 years , we were trying to determine which of those tiny reservoirs were inhabited by more sustainable rorifer assemblages and which ecological qualities were more closely related to such sustainability: species richness, its diversity, density, bio-mass, composition or domination structure. The results of the studies revealed slight variability of ecological properties in planktonic rotifer assemblages in the ponds composing large reservoir groups, and significantly higher variability of those qualities in ”single” ponds, not belonging to large complexes.
The paper presents the analysis of structure of fish communities in five small postexcavation reservoirs situated in Tyśmienica valley (Polesie Lubelskie). Special attention was paid to the quality of population of lake minnow Eupallasella percnurus. By the time the extensive drainage works were done in the 60s and 70s of the 20th century, Polesie Lubelskie was rich in small water reservoirs. As a result of drainage of wetlands, many of them disappeared. Among those which still exist, most of them are located in the Tyśmienica valley. The study revealed that the studied reservoir inhabited seven fish species representing two families. It was also found that structure of dominance and biomass structure is very diverse. In each reservoir the dominant species was different. The lake minnow E. percnurus was determined in three reservoires.
Due to the significant role of macrophytes in the functioning of lake ecosystems studies have been undertaken to examine whether mutual dependence is present within emergent, floating-leaved, and submerged aquatic macrophytes. The study included 5 small lakes from Polesie Lubelskie region. The research included: qualitative analysis of macrophytes (area occupied by macrophytes, composition, range of individual plant groups of occurrence), quantitative analysis of macrophytes (biomass of macrophytes inhabiting the lake), analysis of distribution as well as characteristics diversity of shoreline and surrounding land use. Because of differences in the environmental conditions, mostly light availability, usage of buffer zone, among the three macrophyte groups, changes in biomass were analyzed in this work suggests that complementarity not competition drive the community. This phenomenon seems to occur only in macrophyte lakes where all three groups are present and the surrounding buffer zones remain natural. In lakes where one of the three groups of macrophytes were missing, it is likely that the ecological roles are fulfilled by other plant groups, such as phytoplankton. The studied lakes represent both phytoplanton and macrophyte type of lakes.